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Syscoin Platform’s Great Reddit Scaling Bake-off Proposal

Syscoin Platform’s Great Reddit Scaling Bake-off Proposal

https://preview.redd.it/rqt2dldyg8e51.jpg?width=1044&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=777ae9d4fbbb54c3540682b72700fc4ba3de0a44
We are excited to participate and present Syscoin Platform's ideal characteristics and capabilities towards a well-rounded Reddit Community Points solution!
Our scaling solution for Reddit Community Points involves 2-way peg interoperability with Ethereum. This will provide a scalable token layer built specifically for speed and high volumes of simple value transfers at a very low cost, while providing sovereign ownership and onchain finality.
Token transfers scale by taking advantage of a globally sorting mempool that provides for probabilistically secure assumptions of “as good as settled”. The opportunity here for token receivers is to have an app-layer interactivity on the speed/security tradeoff (99.9999% assurance within 10 seconds). We call this Z-DAG, and it achieves high-throughput across a mesh network topology presently composed of about 2,000 geographically dispersed full-nodes. Similar to Bitcoin, however, these nodes are incentivized to run full-nodes for the benefit of network security, through a bonded validator scheme. These nodes do not participate in the consensus of transactions or block validation any differently than other nodes and therefore do not degrade the security model of Bitcoin’s validate first then trust, across every node. Each token transfer settles on-chain. The protocol follows Bitcoin core policies so it has adequate code coverage and protocol hardening to be qualified as production quality software. It shares a significant portion of Bitcoin’s own hashpower through merged-mining.
This platform as a whole can serve token microtransactions, larger settlements, and store-of-value in an ideal fashion, providing probabilistic scalability whilst remaining decentralized according to Bitcoin design. It is accessible to ERC-20 via a permissionless and trust-minimized bridge that works in both directions. The bridge and token platform are currently available on the Syscoin mainnet. This has been gaining recent attention for use by loyalty point programs and stablecoins such as Binance USD.

Solutions

Syscoin Foundation identified a few paths for Reddit to leverage this infrastructure, each with trade-offs. The first provides the most cost-savings and scaling benefits at some sacrifice of token autonomy. The second offers more preservation of autonomy with a more narrow scope of cost savings than the first option, but savings even so. The third introduces more complexity than the previous two yet provides the most overall benefits. We consider the third as most viable as it enables Reddit to benefit even while retaining existing smart contract functionality. We will focus on the third option, and include the first two for good measure.
  1. Distribution, burns and user-to-user transfers of Reddit Points are entirely carried out on the Syscoin network. This full-on approach to utilizing the Syscoin network provides the most scalability and transaction cost benefits of these scenarios. The tradeoff here is distribution and subscription handling likely migrating away from smart contracts into the application layer.
  2. The Reddit Community Points ecosystem can continue to use existing smart contracts as they are used today on the Ethereum mainchain. Users migrate a portion of their tokens to Syscoin, the scaling network, to gain much lower fees, scalability, and a proven base layer, without sacrificing sovereign ownership. They would use Syscoin for user-to-user transfers. Tips redeemable in ten seconds or less, a high-throughput relay network, and onchain settlement at a block target of 60 seconds.
  3. Integration between Matic Network and Syscoin Platform - similar to Syscoin’s current integration with Ethereum - will provide Reddit Community Points with EVM scalability (including the Memberships ERC777 operator) on the Matic side, and performant simple value transfers, robust decentralized security, and sovereign store-of-value on the Syscoin side. It’s “the best of both worlds”. The trade-off is more complex interoperability.

Syscoin + Matic Integration

Matic and Blockchain Foundry Inc, the public company formed by the founders of Syscoin, recently entered a partnership for joint research and business development initiatives. This is ideal for all parties as Matic Network and Syscoin Platform provide complementary utility. Syscoin offers characteristics for sovereign ownership and security based on Bitcoin’s time-tested model, and shares a significant portion of Bitcoin’s own hashpower. Syscoin’s focus is on secure and scalable simple value transfers, trust-minimized interoperability, and opt-in regulatory compliance for tokenized assets rather than scalability for smart contract execution. On the other hand, Matic Network can provide scalable EVM for smart contract execution. Reddit Community Points can benefit from both.
Syscoin + Matic integration is actively being explored by both teams, as it is helpful to Reddit, Ethereum, and the industry as a whole.

Proving Performance & Cost Savings

Our POC focuses on 100,000 on-chain settlements of token transfers on the Syscoin Core blockchain. Transfers and burns perform equally with Syscoin. For POCs related to smart contracts (subscriptions, etc), refer to the Matic Network proposal.
On-chain settlement of 100k transactions was accomplished within roughly twelve minutes, well-exceeding Reddit’s expectation of five days. This was performed using six full-nodes operating on compute-optimized AWS c4.2xlarge instances which were geographically distributed (Virginia, London, Sao Paulo Brazil, Oregon, Singapore, Germany). A higher quantity of settlements could be reached within the same time-frame with more broadcasting nodes involved, or using hosts with more resources for faster execution of the process.
Addresses used: 100,014
The demonstration was executed using this tool. The results can be seen in the following blocks:
612722: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/6d47796d043bb4c508d29123e6ae81b051f5e0aaef849f253c8f3a6942a022ce
612723: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/8e2077f743461b90f80b4bef502f564933a8e04de97972901f3d65cfadcf1faf
612724: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/205436d25b1b499fce44c29567c5c807beaca915b83cc9f3c35b0d76dbb11f6e
612725: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/776d1b1a0f90f655a6bbdf559ff5072459cbdc5682d7615ff4b78c00babdc237
612726: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/de4df0994253742a1ac8ac9eec8d2a8c8b0a6d72c53d6f3caa29bb6c171b0a6b
612727: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/e5e167c52a9decb313fbaadf49a5e34cb490f8084f642a850385476d4ef10d70
612728: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/ab64d989edc71890e7b5b8491c20e9a27520dc45a5f7c776d3dae79057f59fe7
612729: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/5e8b7ecd0e36f99d07e4ea6e135fc952bf7ec30164ab6f4d1e98b0f2d405df6d
612730: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/d395df3d31dde60bbb0bece6bd5b358297da878f0beb96be389e5f0e043580a3
It is important to note that this POC is not focused on Z-DAG. The performance of Z-DAG has been benchmarked within realistic network conditions: Whiteblock’s audit is publicly available. Network latency tests showed an average TPS around 15k with burst capacity up to 61k. Zero-latency control group exhibited ~150k TPS. Mainnet testing of the Z-DAG network is achievable and will require further coordination and additional resources.
Even further optimizations are expected in the upcoming Syscoin Core release which will implement a UTXO model for our token layer bringing further efficiency as well as open the door to additional scaling technology currently under research by our team and academic partners. At present our token layer is account-based, similar to Ethereum. Opt-in compliance structures will also be introduced soon which will offer some positive performance characteristics as well. It makes the most sense to implement these optimizations before performing another benchmark for Z-DAG, especially on the mainnet considering the resources required to stress-test this network.

Cost Savings

Total cost for these 100k transactions: $0.63 USD
See the live fee comparison for savings estimation between transactions on Ethereum and Syscoin. Below is a snapshot at time of writing:
ETH price: $318.55 ETH gas price: 55.00 Gwei ($0.37)
Syscoin price: $0.11
Snapshot of live fee comparison chart
Z-DAG provides a more efficient fee-market. A typical Z-DAG transaction costs 0.0000582 SYS. Tokens can be safely redeemed/re-spent within seconds or allowed to settle on-chain beforehand. The costs should remain about this low for microtransactions.
Syscoin will achieve further reduction of fees and even greater scalability with offchain payment channels for assets, with Z-DAG as a resilience fallback. New payment channel technology is one of the topics under research by the Syscoin development team with our academic partners at TU Delft. In line with the calculation in the Lightning Networks white paper, payment channels using assets with Syscoin Core will bring theoretical capacity for each person on Earth (7.8 billion) to have five on-chain transactions per year, per person, without requiring anyone to enter a fee market (aka “wait for a block”). This exceeds the minimum LN expectation of two transactions per person, per year; one to exist on-chain and one to settle aggregated value.

Tools, Infrastructure & Documentation

Syscoin Bridge

Mainnet Demonstration of Syscoin Bridge with the Basic Attention Token ERC-20
A two-way blockchain interoperability system that uses Simple Payment Verification to enable:
  • Any Standard ERC-20 token to be moved from Ethereum to the Syscoin blockchain as a Syscoin Platform Token (SPT), and back to Ethereum
  • Any SPT to be moved from Syscoin to the Ethereum blockchain as an ERC-20 token, and back to Syscoin

Benefits

  • Permissionless
  • No counterparties involved
  • No trading mechanisms involved
  • No third-party liquidity providers required
  • Cross-chain Fractional Supply - 2-way peg - Token supply maintained globally
  • ERC-20s gain vastly improved transactionality with the Syscoin Token Platform, along with the security of bitcoin-core-compliant PoW.
  • SPTs gain access to all the tooling, applications and capabilities of Ethereum for ERC-20, including smart contracts.
https://preview.redd.it/l8t2m8ldh8e51.png?width=1180&format=png&auto=webp&s=b0a955a0181746dc79aff718bd0bf607d3c3aa23
https://preview.redd.it/26htnxzfh8e51.png?width=1180&format=png&auto=webp&s=d0383d3c2ee836c9f60b57eca35542e9545f741d

Source code

https://github.com/syscoin/?q=sysethereum
Main Subprojects

API

Tools to simplify using Syscoin Bridge as a service with dapps and wallets will be released some time after implementation of Syscoin Core 4.2. These will be based upon the same processes which are automated in the current live Sysethereum Dapp that is functioning with the Syscoin mainnet.

Documentation

Syscoin Bridge & How it Works (description and process flow)
Superblock Validation Battles
HOWTO: Provision the Bridge for your ERC-20
HOWTO: Setup an Agent
Developer & User Diligence

Trade-off

The Syscoin Ethereum Bridge is secured by Agent nodes participating in a decentralized and incentivized model that involves roles of Superblock challengers and submitters. This model is open to participation. The benefits here are trust-minimization, permissionless-ness, and potentially less legal/regulatory red-tape than interop mechanisms that involve liquidity providers and/or trading mechanisms.
The trade-off is that due to the decentralized nature there are cross-chain settlement times of one hour to cross from Ethereum to Syscoin, and three hours to cross from Syscoin to Ethereum. We are exploring ways to reduce this time while maintaining decentralization via zkp. Even so, an “instant bridge” experience could be provided by means of a third-party liquidity mechanism. That option exists but is not required for bridge functionality today. Typically bridges are used with batch value, not with high frequencies of smaller values, and generally it is advantageous to keep some value on both chains for maximum availability of utility. Even so, the cross-chain settlement time is good to mention here.

Cost

Ethereum -> Syscoin: Matic or Ethereum transaction fee for bridge contract interaction, negligible Syscoin transaction fee for minting tokens
Syscoin -> Ethereum: Negligible Syscoin transaction fee for burning tokens, 0.01% transaction fee paid to Bridge Agent in the form of the ERC-20, Matic or Ethereum transaction fee for contract interaction.

Z-DAG

Zero-Confirmation Directed Acyclic Graph is an instant settlement protocol that is used as a complementary system to proof-of-work (PoW) in the confirmation of Syscoin service transactions. In essence, a Z-DAG is simply a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where validating nodes verify the sequential ordering of transactions that are received in their memory pools. Z-DAG is used by the validating nodes across the network to ensure that there is absolute consensus on the ordering of transactions and no balances are overflowed (no double-spends).

Benefits

  • Unique fee-market that is more efficient for microtransaction redemption and settlement
  • Uses decentralized means to enable tokens with value transfer scalability that is comparable or exceeds that of credit card networks
  • Provides high throughput and secure fulfillment even if blocks are full
  • Probabilistic and interactive
  • 99.9999% security assurance within 10 seconds
  • Can serve payment channels as a resilience fallback that is faster and lower-cost than falling-back directly to a blockchain
  • Each Z-DAG transaction also settles onchain through Syscoin Core at 60-second block target using SHA-256 Proof of Work consensus
https://preview.redd.it/pgbx84jih8e51.png?width=1614&format=png&auto=webp&s=5f631d42a33dc698365eb8dd184b6d442def6640

Source code

https://github.com/syscoin/syscoin

API

Syscoin-js provides tooling for all Syscoin Core RPCs including interactivity with Z-DAG.

Documentation

Z-DAG White Paper
Useful read: An in-depth Z-DAG discussion between Syscoin Core developer Jag Sidhu and Brave Software Research Engineer Gonçalo Pestana

Trade-off

Z-DAG enables the ideal speed/security tradeoff to be determined per use-case in the application layer. It minimizes the sacrifice required to accept and redeem fast transfers/payments while providing more-than-ample security for microtransactions. This is supported on the premise that a Reddit user receiving points does need security yet generally doesn’t want nor need to wait for the same level of security as a nation-state settling an international trade debt. In any case, each Z-DAG transaction settles onchain at a block target of 60 seconds.

Syscoin Specs

Syscoin 3.0 White Paper
(4.0 white paper is pending. For improved scalability and less blockchain bloat, some features of v3 no longer exist in current v4: Specifically Marketplace Offers, Aliases, Escrow, Certificates, Pruning, Encrypted Messaging)
  • 16MB block bandwidth per minute assuming segwit witness carrying transactions, and transactions ~200 bytes on average
  • SHA256 merge mined with Bitcoin
  • UTXO asset layer, with base Syscoin layer sharing identical security policies as Bitcoin Core
  • Z-DAG on asset layer, bridge to Ethereum on asset layer
  • On-chain scaling with prospect of enabling enterprise grade reliable trustless payment processing with on/offchain hybrid solution
  • Focus only on Simple Value Transfers. MVP of blockchain consensus footprint is balances and ownership of them. Everything else can reduce data availability in exchange for scale (Ethereum 2.0 model). We leave that to other designs, we focus on transfers.
  • Future integrations of MAST/Taproot to get more complex value transfers without trading off trustlessness or decentralization.
  • Zero-knowledge Proofs are a cryptographic new frontier. We are dabbling here to generalize the concept of bridging and also verify the state of a chain efficiently. We also apply it in our Digital Identity projects at Blockchain Foundry (a publicly traded company which develops Syscoin softwares for clients). We are also looking to integrate privacy preserving payment channels for off-chain payments through zkSNARK hub & spoke design which does not suffer from the HTLC attack vectors evident on LN. Much of the issues plaguing Lightning Network can be resolved using a zkSNARK design whilst also providing the ability to do a multi-asset payment channel system. Currently we found a showstopper attack (American Call Option) on LN if we were to use multiple-assets. This would not exist in a system such as this.

Wallets

Web3 and mobile wallets are under active development by Blockchain Foundry Inc as WebAssembly applications and expected for release not long after mainnet deployment of Syscoin Core 4.2. Both of these will be multi-coin wallets that support Syscoin, SPTs, Ethereum, and ERC-20 tokens. The Web3 wallet will provide functionality similar to Metamask.
Syscoin Platform and tokens are already integrated with Blockbook. Custom hardware wallet support currently exists via ElectrumSys. First-class HW wallet integration through apps such as Ledger Live will exist after 4.2.
Current supported wallets
Syscoin Spark Desktop
Syscoin-Qt

Explorers

Mainnet: https://sys1.bcfn.ca (Blockbook)
Testnet: https://explorer-testnet.blockchainfoundry.co

Thank you for close consideration of our proposal. We look forward to feedback, and to working with the Reddit community to implement an ideal solution using Syscoin Platform!

submitted by sidhujag to ethereum [link] [comments]

Reddcoin (RDD) 02/20 Progress Report - Core Wallet v3.1 Evolution & PoSV v2 - Commits & More Commits to v3.1! (Bitcoin Core 0.10, MacOS Catalina, QT Enhanced Speed and Security and more!)

Reddcoin (RDD) Core Dev Team Informal Progress Report, Feb 2020 - As any blockchain or software expert will confirm, the hardest part of making successful progress in blockchain and crypto is invisible to most users. As developers, the Reddcoin Core team relies on internal experts like John Nash, contributors offering their own code improvements to our repos (which we would love to see more of!) and especially upstream commits from experts working on open source projects like Bitcoin itself. We'd like tothank each and everyone who's hard work has contributed to this progress.
As part of Reddcoin's evolution, and in order to include required security fixes, speed improvements that are long overdue, the team has up to this point incorporated the following code commits since our last v3.0.1 public release. In attempting to solve the relatively minor font display issue with MacOS Catalina, we uncovered a complicated interweaving of updates between Reddcoin Core, QT software, MacOS SDK, Bitcoin Core and related libraries and dependencies that mandated we take a holistic approach to both solve the Catalina display problem, but in doing so, prepare a more streamlined overall build and test system, allowing the team to roll out more frequent and more secure updates in the future. And also to include some badly needed fixes in the current version of Core, which we have tentatively labeled Reddcoin Core Wallet v3.1.
Note: As indicated below, v3.1 is NOT YET AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD BY PUBLIC. We wil advise when it is.
The new v3.1 version should be ready for internal QA and build testing by the end of this week, with luck, and will be turned over to the public shortly thereafter once testing has proven no unexpected issues have been introduced. We know the delay has been a bit extended for our ReddHead MacOS Catalina stakers, and we hope to have them all aboard soon. We have moved with all possible speed while attempting to incorproate all the required work, testing, and ensuring security and safety for our ReddHeads.
Which leads us to: PoSV v2 activation and the supermajority on Mainnet at the time of this writing has reached 5625/9000 blocks or 62.5%. We have progressed quite well and without any reported user issues since release, but we need all of the community to participate! This activation, much like the funding mechanisms currently being debated by BCH and others, and employed by DASH, will mean not only a catalyst for Reddcoin but ensure it's future by providing funding for the dev team. As a personal plea from the team, please help us support the PoSV v2 activation by staking your RDD, no matter how large or small your amount of stake.
Every block and every RDD counts, and if you don't know how, we'll teach you! Live chat is fun as well as providing tech support you can trust from devs and community ReddHead members. Join us today in staking and online and collect some RDD "rain" from users and devs alike!
If you're holding Reddcoin and not staking, or you haven't upgraded your v2.x wallet to v3.0.1 (current release), we need you to help achieve consensus and activate PoSV v2! For details, see the pinned message here or our website or medium channel. Upgrade is simple and takes moments; if you're nervous or unsure, we're here to help live in Telegram or Discord, as well as other chat programs. See our website for links.
Look for more updates shortly as our long-anticipated Reddcoin Payment Gateway and Merchant Services API come online with point-of-sale support, as we announce the cross-crypto-project Aussie firefighter fundraiser program, as well as a comprehensive update to our development roadmap and more.
Work has restarted on ReddID and multiple initiatives are underway to begin educating and sharing information about ReddID, what it is, and how to use it, as we approach a releasable ReddID product. We enthusiastically encourage anyone interested in working to bring these efforts to life, whether writers, UX/UI experts, big data analysts, graphic artists, coders, front-end, back-end, AI, DevOps, the Reddcoin Core dev team is growing, and there's more opportunity and work than ever!
Bring your talents to a community and dev team that truly appreciates it, and share the Reddcoin Love!
And now, lots of commits. As v3.1 is not yet quite ready for public release, these commits have not been pushed publicly, but in the interests of sharing progress transparently, and including our ReddHead community in the process, see below for mind-numbing technical detail of work accomplished.
e5c143404 - - 2014-08-07 - Ross Nicoll - Changed LevelDB cursors to use scoped pointers to ensure destruction when going out of scope. *99a7dba2e - - 2014-08-15 - Cory Fields - tests: fix test-runner for osx. Closes ##4708 *8c667f1be - - 2014-08-15 - Cory Fields - build: add funcs.mk to the list of meta-depends *bcc1b2b2f - - 2014-08-15 - Cory Fields - depends: fix shasum on osx < 10.9 *54dac77d1 - - 2014-08-18 - Cory Fields - build: add option for reducing exports (v2) *6fb9611c0 - - 2014-08-16 - randy-waterhouse - build : fix CPPFLAGS for libbitcoin_cli *9958cc923 - - 2014-08-16 - randy-waterhouse - build: Add --with-utils (bitcoin-cli and bitcoin-tx, default=yes). Help string consistency tweaks. Target sanity check fix. *342aa98ea - - 2014-08-07 - Cory Fields - build: fix automake warnings about the use of INCLUDES *46db8ad51 - - 2020-02-18 - John Nash - build: add build.h to the correct target *a24de1e4c - - 2014-11-26 - Pavel Janík - Use complete path to include bitcoin-config.h. *fd8f506e5 - - 2014-08-04 - Wladimir J. van der Laan - qt: Demote ReportInvalidCertificate message to qDebug *f12aaf3b1 - - 2020-02-17 - John Nash - build: QT5 compiled with fPIC require fPIC to be enabled, fPIE is not enough *7a991b37e - - 2014-08-12 - Wladimir J. van der Laan - build: check for sys/prctl.h in the proper way *2cfa63a48 - - 2014-08-11 - Wladimir J. van der Laan - build: Add mention of --disable-wallet to bdb48 error messages *9aa580f04 - - 2014-07-23 - Cory Fields - depends: add shared dependency builder *8853d4645 - - 2014-08-08 - Philip Kaufmann - [Qt] move SubstituteFonts() above ToolTipToRichTextFilter *0c98e21db - - 2014-08-02 - Ross Nicoll - URLs containing a / after the address no longer cause parsing errors. *7baa77731 - - 2014-08-07 - ntrgn - Fixes ignored qt 4.8 codecs path on windows when configuring with --with-qt-libdir *2a3df4617 - - 2014-08-06 - Cory Fields - qt: fix unicode character display on osx when building with 10.7 sdk *71a36303d - - 2014-08-04 - Cory Fields - build: fix race in 'make deploy' for windows *077295498 - - 2014-08-04 - Cory Fields - build: Fix 'make deploy' when binaries haven't been built yet *ffdcc4d7d - - 2014-08-04 - Cory Fields - build: hook up qt translations for static osx packaging *25a7e9c90 - - 2014-08-04 - Cory Fields - build: add --with-qt-translationdir to configure for use with static qt *11cfcef37 - - 2014-08-04 - Cory Fields - build: teach macdeploy the -translations-dir argument, for use with static qt *4c4ae35b1 - - 2014-07-23 - Cory Fields - build: Find the proper xcb/pcre dependencies *942e77dd2 - - 2014-08-06 - Cory Fields - build: silence mingw fpic warning spew *e73e2b834 - - 2014-06-27 - Huang Le - Use async name resolving to improve net thread responsiveness *c88e76e8e - - 2014-07-23 - Cory Fields - build: don't let libtool insert rpath into binaries *18e14e11c - - 2014-08-05 - ntrgn - build: Fix windows configure when using --with-qt-libdir *bb92d65c4 - - 2014-07-31 - Cory Fields - test: don't let the port number exceed the legal range *62b95290a - - 2014-06-18 - Cory Fields - test: redirect comparison tool output to stdout *cefe447e9 - - 2014-07-22 - Cory Fields - gitian: remove unneeded option after last commit *9347402ca - - 2014-07-21 - Cory Fields - build: fix broken boost chrono check on some platforms *c9ed039cf - - 2014-06-03 - Cory Fields - build: fix whitespace in pkg-config variable *3bcc5ad37 - - 2014-06-03 - Cory Fields - build: allow linux and osx to build against static qt5 *01a44ba90 - - 2014-07-17 - Cory Fields - build: silence false errors during make clean *d1fbf7ba2 - - 2014-07-08 - Cory Fields - build: fix win32 static linking after libtool merge *005ae2fa4 - - 2014-07-08 - Cory Fields - build: re-add AM_LDFLAGS where it's overridden *37043076d - - 2014-07-02 - Wladimir J. van der Laan - Fix the Qt5 build after d95ba75 *f3b4bbf40 - - 2014-07-01 - Wladimir J. van der Laan - qt: Change serious messages from qDebug to qWarning *f4706f753 - - 2014-07-01 - Wladimir J. van der Laan - qt: Log messages with type>QtDebugMsg as non-debug *98e85fa1f - - 2014-06-06 - Pieter Wuille - libsecp256k1 integration *5f1f2e226 - - 2020-02-17 - John Nash - Merge branch 'switch_verification_code' into Build *1f30416c9 - - 2014-02-07 - Pieter Wuille - Also switch the (unused) verification code to low-s instead of even-s. *1c093d55e - - 2014-06-06 - Cory Fields - secp256k1: Add build-side changes for libsecp256k1 *7f3114484 - - 2014-06-06 - Cory Fields - secp256k1: add libtool as a dependency *2531f9299 - - 2020-02-17 - John Nash - Move network-time related functions to timedata.cpp/h *d003e4c57 - - 2020-02-16 - John Nash - build: fix build weirdness after 54372482. *7035f5034 - - 2020-02-16 - John Nash - Add ::OUTPUT_SIZE *2a864c4d8 - - 2014-06-09 - Cory Fields - crypto: create a separate lib for crypto functions *03a4e4c70 - - 2014-06-09 - Cory Fields - crypto: explicitly check for byte read/write functions *a78462a2a - - 2014-06-09 - Cory Fields - build: move bitcoin-config.h to its own directory *a885721c4 - - 2014-05-31 - Pieter Wuille - Extend and move all crypto tests to crypto_tests.cpp *5f308f528 - - 2014-05-03 - Pieter Wuille - Move {Read,Write}{LE,BE}{32,64} to common.h and use builtins if possible *0161cc426 - - 2014-05-01 - Pieter Wuille - Add built-in RIPEMD-160 implementation *deefc27c0 - - 2014-04-28 - Pieter Wuille - Move crypto implementations to src/crypto/ *d6a12182b - - 2014-04-28 - Pieter Wuille - Add built-in SHA-1 implementation. *c3c4f9f2e - - 2014-04-27 - Pieter Wuille - Switch miner.cpp to use sha2 instead of OpenSSL. *b6ed6def9 - - 2014-04-28 - Pieter Wuille - Remove getwork() RPC call *0a09c1c60 - - 2014-04-26 - Pieter Wuille - Switch script.cpp and hash.cpp to use sha2.cpp instead of OpenSSL. *8ed091692 - - 2014-04-20 - Pieter Wuille - Add a built-in SHA256/SHA512 implementation. *0c4c99b3f - - 2014-06-21 - Philip Kaufmann - small cleanup in src/compat .h and .cpp *ab1369745 - - 2014-06-13 - Cory Fields - sanity: hook up sanity checks *f598c67e0 - - 2014-06-13 - Cory Fields - sanity: add libc/stdlib sanity checks *b241b3e13 - - 2014-06-13 - Cory Fields - sanity: autoconf check for sys/select.h *cad980a4f - - 2019-07-03 - John Nash - build: Add a top-level forwarding target for src/ objects *f4533ee1c - - 2019-07-03 - John Nash - build: qt: split locale resources. Fixes non-deterministic distcheck *4a0e46e76 - - 2019-06-29 - John Nash - build: fix version dependency *2f61699d9 - - 2019-06-29 - John Nash - build: quit abusing AMCPPFLAGS *99b60ba49 - - 2019-06-29 - John Nash - build: avoid the use of top and abs_ dir paths *c8f673d5d - - 2019-06-29 - John Nash - build: Tidy up file generation output *5318bce57 - - 2019-06-29 - John Nash - build: nuke Makefile.include from orbit *672a25349 - - 2019-06-29 - John Nash - build: add stub makefiles for easier subdir builds *562b7c5a6 - - 2020-02-08 - John Nash - build: delete old Makefile.am's *066120079 - - 2020-02-08 - John Nash - build: Switch to non-recursive make
Whew! No wonder it's taken the dev team a while! :)
TL;DR: Trying to fix MacOS Catalina font display led to requiring all kinds of work to migrate and evolve the Reddcoin Core software with Apple, Bitcoin and QT components. Lots of work done, v3.1 public release soon. Also other exciting things and ReddID back under active dev effort.
submitted by TechAdept to reddCoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin’s Security and Hash Rate Explained

Bitcoin’s Security and Hash Rate Explained
As the Bitcoin hash rate reaches new all-time highs, there’s never been a better time to discuss blockchain security and its relation to the hashing power and the Proof of Work (PoW) that feed the network. The Bitcoin system is based on a form of decentralized trust, heavily relying on cryptography. This makes its blockchain highly secure and able to be used for financial transactions and other operations requiring a trustless ledger.
Far from popular belief, cryptography dates back to thousands of years ago. The same root of the word encryption — crypt — comes from the Greek word ‘kryptos’, meaning hidden or secret. Indeed, humans have always wanted to keep some information private. The Assyrians, the Chinese, the Romans, and the Greeks, they all tried over the centuries to conceal some information like trade deals or manufacturing secrets by using symbols or ciphers carved in stone or leather. In 1900 BC, Egyptians used hieroglyphics and experts often refer to them as the first example of cryptography.
Back to our days, Bitcoin uses cryptographic technologies such as:
  1. Cryptographic hash functions (i.e. SHA-256 and RIPEMD-160)
  2. Public Key Cryptography (i.e. ECDSA — the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm)
While Public Key Cryptography, bitcoin addresses, and digital signatures are used to provide ownership of bitcoins, the SHA-256 hash function is used to verify data and block integrity and to establish the chronological order of the blockchain. A cryptographic hash function is a mathematical function that verifies the integrity of data by transforming it into a unique unidentifiable code.
Here is a graphic example to make things more clear:

– Extract from the MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) in Digital Currencies at the University of Nicosia.
Furthermore, hash functions are used as part of the PoW algorithm, which is a prominent part of the Bitcoin mining algorithm and this is what is of more interest to understand the security of the network. Mining creates new bitcoins in each block, almost like a central bank printing new money and creates trust by ensuring that transactions are confirmed only when enough computational power is devoted to the block that contains them. More blocks mean more computation, which means more trust.
With PoW, miners compete against each other to complete transactions on the network and get rewarded. Basically they need to solve a complicated mathematical puzzle and a possibility to easily prove the solution. The more hashing power, the higher the chance to resolve the puzzle and therefore perform the proof of work. In more simple words, bitcoins exist thanks to a peer to peer network that helps validate transactions in the ledger and provides enough trust to avoid that a third party is involved in the process. It also exists because miners give it life by resolving that computational puzzle, through the mining reward incentive they are receiving.
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Establishing a smart contract commercial scenario: Chainlink, Zk-Snarks and sharding technology work together to make the ultimate killer

This text was translated from Chinese, open following link in Chrome and translate to see all images:
https://bihu.com/article/1242138347
EDIT: found an English text with pictures:
https://medium.com/@rogerfeng/making-smart-contracts-work-for-business-how-chainlink-zk-snarks-sharding-finally-delivered-8f268af75ca2
Author: Feng Jie translation: Liu Sha
“The highest state of technology is to integrate into the various scenes of everyday life, to fade away from high-tech outerwear and become a part of everyday life.” – Mark Weiser
People in the future will not even think that smart contracts are "innovative." By that time, smart contracts would permeate every aspect of life, and people couldn't even imagine what the era of non-digital currency would look like.
Later historians may divide human business history into two eras, the pre-smart contract era and the post-smart contract era. After all, digital money has brought unprecedented changes to the nature and patterns of business practices in the real world. An anonymous member of the Chainlink community once said: "Smart contracts can change the DNA of the business."
Of course, like all the technological revolutions of the past, smart contracts also need to reach a "tipping point" to truly achieve large-scale applications. So we need to ask ourselves two questions:
  1. What exactly is this so-called tipping point?
  2. As of August 2019, have we reached this tipping point?
To reach the tipping point means unlocking the ultimate nirvana of business.
Tipping point We can think about this issue from the perspective of mainstream companies. Imagine what a perfect smart contract platform should look like. What characteristics should this platform have? Or what features must be possessed?
To reach the tipping point, you must establish a public chain with the following four characteristics:
  1. Privacy protection
  2. In addition to the cryptocurrency, the transaction can also be settled in mainstream legal currency and comply with the regulatory requirements of financial markets such as ISO 20022.
  3. Achieve scalability without sacrificing decentralization or security, that is, solving the "impossible triangle problem."
  4. Connect the external data under the chain, that is, solve the "prophecy problem."
Now that we have Chainlink, zk-snarks and sharding technology, we have reached this tipping point.
Next, let's explore how this ultimate nirvana is actually made. Our discussion will be mainly from the perspective of Ethereum, which is still the top smart contract platform for community size and mainstream applications.
So what about the private chain?
Before delving into it, I want to take the time to solve an unavoidable problem. The mainstream view has always believed that the private chain is a more suitable solution for the enterprise. Therefore, we first dialectically analyze the two advantages and two major drawbacks of the private chain.
Disadvantages
  1. Centralization leads to relatively lower security
It's not surprising that IBM and Maersk's blockchain freight alliances have a hard time finding customers who are willing to join. How can other freight companies be willing to let their biggest competitors (Maersk) verify their trading data? Only madmen dare to do this.
  1. The staking of the horses occupy the hills:
This problem is even more serious than centralization. John Wolpert, co-founder of the IBM blockchain, wrote an excellent article called Breaking the Barriers to Realize Security: Why Companies Should Embrace the Ethereum Public Chain, which he covered in detail in the article.
If every company builds its own private chain, it will lead to chaos in the mountains. Today's B2B ecosystem is very complex. Imagine the innumerable private chains of the world intertwined to form a huge "spider web." This is not only cost-effective, but also not scalable.
The starting point of the blockchain is to break down barriers instead of building more barriers.
"One day, one of your big buyers called you to ask if you want to join their private chain. You promised. The next day you received a call from the wholesaler to ask you the same question. Then came the supplier, freight. Business, insurance company or even bank, and each company may have several private chains! Finally you have to invest a lot of time and cost to operate dozens of blockchains every day . If there are partners to let you join them at this time The private chain, you might say "Forget it, or fax me the order!" ”—Paul Brody (Ernst & Young)
“Every time you connect two private chains through a system integrator, you have to pay a lot of money .”
Advantage
  1. Scalability: With the Ethereum public chain implementing fragmentation technology, this advantage is rapidly shrinking.
  2. Privacy protection: At this stage, the classification of public chain / private chain is actually not very accurate. The Aztec , Zether, and Nightfall protocols (both based on the zk-snarks protocol) effectively provide a "private chain model" for the Ethereum public chain, allowing it to switch between the public and private chains. Therefore, a more accurate classification should be the alliance chain and the public chain.
By 2020, the label of the public chain/private chain will gradually disappear. The public and private chains will no longer be two opposing concepts. Instead, the concept of publicly traded/private transactions and confidential contracts/open contracts is changed, and the scope of these transactions and contracts varies according to specific needs, either bilaterally or multilaterally or even publicly.
All in all, the private chain has two major drawbacks compared to the public chain. Not only that, but the two major advantages of the private chain are also rapidly disappearing.
“Technology will evolve over time, so there will be a variety of solutions to solve existing problems. Ultimately, the public-chain platform will have the same performance, scalability and data privacy as the private chain, while at the same time ensuring security and Decentralized."
Feature 1: Privacy protection (predictive machine and public chain privacy)
Enigma founder Guy Zyskind once joked in his MIT graduation thesis that smart contracts can only become commercially valuable if they become "confidential contracts." He later proposed that zk-snarks and Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) are the most promising solutions. He said nothing wrong.
What is zk-snarks ? Zk-snarks is a zero-knowledge proof mechanism (ZPK). So what is the zero-knowledge proof mechanism? In short: a zero-knowledge proof mechanism allows you to prove that you own certain information without revealing the content of the information.
Vitalik Buterin explained this concept in detail from a technical point of view in an article published in 2017. Hackernoon also wrote an excellent article explaining the concept in an easy-to-understand way with the example of a five-year-old child and Halloween candy.
What is the trusted execution environment? The trusted execution environment lets the code run on closed hardware, and
1 ) The guarantee result cannot be tampered with
2 ) Protecting absolute privacy, even hardware running code can't get confidential information.
The most well-known trusted execution environment is Intel SGX. Chainlink has established a partnership with Intel SGX after acquiring Tom Crier.
Ernst & Young released the Nightfall agreement on Github on May 31, 2019. A well-known accounting firm with a history of 100 years will choose to add privacy features to the public chain instead of developing a private chain. This is a problem.
Since then, the community has been actively developing on this basis, not only to improve the code, but also to develop a plug-and-play Truffle Box for those who are not good at writing code. Blockchain communities and businesses generally rarely collaborate, so these collaborations fully demonstrate the popularity of Nightfall.
Prior to this, two zk-snark-based Ethereum public chain privacy protocols were introduced, namely AZTEC (Consensys) and Zether (Stanford, JPMorgan Chase). An obvious trend is slowly taking shape.
In the field of oracles, Chainlink uses both zero-knowledge proof and a trusted execution environment to complement each other. Trusted execution environments guarantee data privacy, even for nodes that cannot access data (this feature is critical for bank accounts and API keys).
Chainlink is still trying to implement a trusted execution environment, and nodes can access data temporarily, so authentication services are also needed. Although the credible execution environment is almost 100% foolproof, in theory, a strong shield has a spear that can penetrate it. Therefore, the team is currently trying to run zk-snarks in a trusted execution environment (Thomas Hodges mentioned this in the 2019 Trufflecon Q&A session). The combination of the two can form a very robust and complete system. The attacker must find a way to strip all the layers of an onion at the same time to make any effective attack (and it is already difficult to peel off a layer of skin).
“Chainlink combines a trusted execution environment with zero-knowledge proof to build what we call a defense-in-depth system, which means they provide all the tools needed for smart contract developers, including trusted execution environments, multiple nodes, and Data sources, fine margins, reputation systems, asymmetric encryption, zero-knowledge proofs, WASM, and OTP+RNG, these features allow smart contract developers to adjust the confidentiality and cost of contracts based on specific budget and security needs. Machine, Chainlink and its four major application scenarios》
In the future, zk-snarks may be upgraded to zk-starks (a fully transparent zero-knowledge proof mechanism) that protects the system from quantum computer attacks. And the best thing about zk-starks is that it's more scalable than zk-snarks. In other words, it can better protect privacy, and the cost of gas will not increase.
If you want to learn more about zk-starks, you can read a popular science article written by Adam Luciano.
Feature 2: Scalability (scalability of predictive machines and public chains) To understand this problem, we can make an analogy like this:
A public chain is like a large enterprise, and every employee (ie, a node) must attend each meeting (ie, confirm each transaction). Imagine how inefficient this company is! Only customers who have a lot of money (ie gas fees) can get their requests to the forefront. And this is not the most serious problem. The most serious problem is that the more employees (ie nodes) who join the company, the harder it is for the company to function properly! In the end, the company not only failed to expand linearly, but also became smaller and smaller. Although this guarantees decentralization and security to the greatest extent, the price is completely abandoning scalability.
There are various temporary fire fighting solutions, but no one solution can completely solve this "impossible triangle problem." For example, EOS uses the DPOS mechanism (share authorization certification mechanism), where only 21 super nodes (many of which are well-known nodes) are responsible for verifying all transactions.
Sidechains (such as Bitcoin's Lightning Network and Ethereum's lightning network) guarantee scalability and decentralization at the expense of security.
So how to use the fragmentation technology to solve this problem? Let's make another analogy:
In reality, there is only one company that is not too much to ask everyone to attend all meetings, that is, small start-ups (that is, private chains that limit the number of nodes).
In most cases, large companies divide employees into thousands of teams (ie, shards), and each team's principal (ie, the certifier) ​​is responsible for reporting to the senior management (ie, the main chain). If people from different teams need to collaborate (and sometimes also), then they can collaborate by cross-shard receipts. If a new employee joins the company, the team can be re-segmented (ie re-sharding). This allows for linear expansion.
In fact, the process of developing a start-up to a large enterprise is surprisingly similar to the process of Ethereum 1.0 developing into Ethereum 2.0.
“The Ethereum 1.0 period is that several people who are alone are trying to build a world computer; and Ethereum 2.0 will really develop into a world computer.” Vitalik Buterin said in the first piece of the workshop.
Since Ethereum was not originally built on the principle of fragmentation, it takes seven steps to achieve the goal (this is a bit like the word morphing solitaire game). The first step is planned for January 3, 2020.
At the same time, developers can use many other blockchain platforms designed based on the fragmentation principle. Some platforms, including Zilliqa and Quarkchain, are already compatible with Chainlink.
If you want to see more in-depth technical analysis of shards, check out an article by Ramy Zhang.
In the field of oracles, Chainlink has the following two characteristics:
1 ) Use Schnorr threshold signatures to quickly reach consensus in a cost-effective manner. The next version of the chain only needs 16,000 gas.
2 ) We have previously discussed the need to use trusted execution environment hardware to ensure that nodes cannot access sensitive data. Since you have hardware in your hand, you can use it to do some actual computing work, so that you can properly reduce the amount of computation on the smart contract platform.
"With the SGX system (Town Crier) and zero-knowledge proof technology, the oracle can be truly reliable and confidential, so the boundaries between the oracle and the smart contract are beginning to flow... Our long-term strategy... is to let The predictor becomes the key chain of computing resources used by most smart contracts. We believe that the way to achieve this goal is to perform chain operations in the oracle to meet various computing needs, and then send the results to the smart contract."Chainlink White Paper, Section 6.3 (26 pages)
Of course, this “long-term strategy” has certain risks, unless Chainlink can implement a trusted execution environment and its service provider ecosystem can achieve a qualitative leap. However, the Chainlink team's vision is absolutely forward-looking: under-chain computing is a key factor in ensuring that blockchains are not dragged down by large amounts of IoT data.
The Internet of Things has dramatically increased the current state of big data. At present, most of the data is still generated on the software side, and it is not real-time data, and most of the data in the future will be real-time data generated on the sensor side. One of the big drawbacks of real-time data is that it increases storage pressure. For example, Coughlin Associates expects an unmanned car to generate 1G of data per second. This means that the same car will produce 3.6T data per hour!
The only viable solution is to do real-time analysis of the data, rather than storing the data first. In the Global Cloud Index: 2016-2021 Forecast and Methodology White Paper, Cisco predicts that more than 90% of data in 2021 will be analyzed in real time without storage.
That is to say, the essence of data is that it can only exist in just one instant. The nature of the blockchain is not to be modified, so the two are as incompatible as water and oil.
The solution is to analyze the raw data under the chain, extract the meaningful results and send them to the blockchain. The combination of fragmentation technology and trusted execution environment forms a new computing architecture, similar to the cloud computing-fog computing-edge computing architecture.
It should be noted here that it is good to improve computing power, but this is not the main purpose of the blockchain.
The fundamental purpose of the blockchain is not to reduce the original cost of computing and data storage. After all, technology giants such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Salesforce, Tencent, Alibaba, and Dropbox have built world-class cloud services. The centralized server wins high computational efficiency (but the blockchain will greatly improve the computational efficiency through fragmentation technology, and will catch up with it one day). The value of the blockchain is to reduce the cost of building trust. Nick Szabo calls it "social scalability" (this is a relative concept to the "operational" scalability we have been talking about). Vitalik Buterin also made it clear that the meaning of smart contracts is to accept small arithmetic delay penalties in exchange for a substantial reduction in "social costs."
Alex Coventry of the Chainlink team once raised the question: "We have missed many opportunities for cooperation and reciprocity because we can't confirm whether the other party will fulfill the promise?"
Is there any potential for data storage projects like Siacoin and IPFS? What about decentralized computing projects like SONM and Golem?
Siacoin 's core value proposition is not that its computing efficiency is higher than traditional cloud services. The cost of computing is required to split, repeat, and reassemble data. And companies are more capable of buying the latest and greatest hardware than individuals. Siacoin's core value proposition is to process data in an Airbnb-like mode, so management fees will be lower than traditional models. It also generates additional social value, such as flood control, privacy and security, and anti-censorship.
The same is true of Golem and SONM. Even with the most efficient protocol, it is inevitable that a small amount of delay will be imposed and fined to coordinate the hardware of different geographical locations. Therefore, under the condition that all other conditions are equal, the centralized hardware still has the advantage of faster computing speed. However, the core value proposition of the above project is to use the Airbnb-like model to reduce management costs.
We must strictly distinguish between "social scalability" and "operational scalability", and the two cannot be confused. I will explain these two concepts in detail when I discuss "Magic Bus and Lightweight Library" later.
Feature 3: Compatible with legal currency
Most mainstream companies do not regard cryptocurrencies as "real currencies." In addition, even if someone wants to use cryptocurrency for trading, it is very difficult to actually operate because of its high price volatility. I discussed the “price volatility problem” in detail in Chapters 8 and 9 of the previous article. These problems do not completely erase the existence value of cryptocurrencies, because cryptocurrencies also have many advantages that legal currency does not have. I am just emphasizing what we need to know more about the comfort zone of mainstream companies.
Chainlink acts as a universal API connector that triggers open banking payments. Chainlink is fully compliant with ISO 20022 and has established a long-term partnership with SWIFT (it is worth mentioning that SWIFT has not been updated for a long time and hopes to be updated after the SIBOS 2019 conference).
PSD2 will take effect on September 14, 2019. All banks in the EU will all comply with this new regulation by then. In other words, the bank must put all account data in the "front end" and can be called through the API. The approved third party (ie, the Chainlink node) can trigger the payment directly without the payment service provider.
Although the United States and Japan have not adopted similar laws, many banks still spontaneously promote the development of open banks. Banks open APIs to third-party developers to create new revenue streams and customer experiences that ultimately increase profitability. In addition, this will allow banks to better respond to competitors in the mobile payment and financial technology sectors in an APP-centric economic model.
As this open banking revolution continues, Chainlink will connect smart contracts with the world's major currencies (US dollar, euro, yen, etc.).
Only one external adapter is required to connect to the authenticated API. From a programming perspective, it is relatively simple to allow everyone in the community to contribute code to the code base (and thus achieve scalability). Chainlink has released adapters for PayPal and Mister Tango (European version of PayPal).
Feature 4: Data connection with the chain
Chainlink has been working on solving the "prophecy problem" and successfully succeeded on the main online line on May 30, 2019.
Chainlink has made many achievements in just a few months. Provable (formerly Oraclize) was successfully used on the Chainlink node and finally settled the debate about whether the predictor should be centralized or decentralized.
Synthetic Ether lost 37 million Ethercoins in a hack because it did not connect to Chainlink. Fortunately, the money was finally recovered and did not cause any loss. This lesson illustrates the importance of decentralized oracles.
In addition, both Oracle and Google have partnered with Chainlink to monetize their API data and create a virtuous circle to capture the market opportunities that Facebook missed.
There are new nodes coming online every week, and the network activity has been very high. The Chainlink team maintains a list of certified nodes in the documentation and Twitter releases. Twitter user CryptoSponge also set up a new development for the Tableau push update Chainlink team:
Regarding the importance of the current stage in the history of blockchain development, Brad Huston summed it up very brilliantly:
"The biggest problem with cryptocurrencies is to build bridges between cryptocurrencies, fiat currencies and big data. Chainlink is very beautifully narrowing the distance between the three. Now it can even be said: 'The bridge has been built.'"
Magic bus and lightweight library
Let's summarize what we discussed earlier. The real purpose of the blockchain is to reduce the cost of building trust and achieve "social scalability."
Therefore, according to this logic, the main application scenarios of platforms such as Ethereum 2.0 and Zilliqa should be in the B2B field. I quote a sentence I wrote in a previous article:
“My conclusion is: If the smart contract is successful, it will also succeed in the B2B field first.”
The private chain itself is self-contradictory and destined to fail. It has led to the phenomenon of occupying the hills, thus increasing the social cost, which is in opposition to B2B itself, and ultimately it is self-restraint. ”
Before the emergence of fragmentation technology, even simple games (ie, etheric cats) could not be smoothly run on the public chain, let alone dealing with complex B2B contracts and even changing commercial DNA. With the sharding technology, everything is ready.
Despite this, we can't use Ethereum 2.0 as an all-powerful platform. Just now we said that although it is a good thing to speed up the calculation, this is not the real purpose of Ethereum 2.0. And before we also said that due to the irreversible modification of the blockchain, it is not good to deal with a large number of fleeting real-time data of the Internet of Things. In other words, we must be soberly aware that Ethereum 2.0 will not replace traditional web 2.0. Instead, we should make better use of the real advantages of Ethereum 2.0:
“There is a new concept now, that is to think of the Ethereum main network as a global bus... We use the Ethereum 2.0 main network to treat various business resources as a working group on Slack: it can be easily built and integrated. And restructuring. The SAP inventory management system in your company, the dealer's JD Edwards ERP system, and the financial technology partner's tall blockchain system can seamlessly interface, eliminating the need to develop an infrastructure specifically for each partner." - John Wolper describes his ideal "magic bus"
Ethereum 2.0 should be an integration center, not a data center or computing center. It should be a library built specifically to store B2B contract terms (to be honest, even with fragmentation technology, the amount of data is large enough).
We should not expect Ethereum 2.0 to be an all-powerful platform, but rather develop it into a "lightweight library."
If we reorder the pyramid model just now, the architecture of the magic bus is obvious:
Of course, the positional relationship in the above model is not static. With the development of 5G technology, edge computing and IoT sensors, they may bypass the cloud to directly interact (or even bypass the fog end). If the collaboration between Iotex and Chainlink is successful, then the edge can interact directly with the trusted execution environment.
Time will tell if Airbnb's shared data storage and computing model can make management costs lower than the current mainstream Web 2.0 model. Time will also prove whether the market really needs anti-censorship, anti-tampering, security protection and privacy protection. Do users really care about these social values ​​and are willing to pay for them? Do they think these are just the icing on the cake or the most fundamental value?
in conclusion
Whether it is the battle between web2.0 and web3.0 or the battle between cryptocurrency and legal currency, one thing is beyond doubt:
We have reached the tipping point, and the era of smart contracts with commercial value has arrived.
In fact, the only problem at the moment is the time issue, and the main roadblocks have been basically cleared.
  1. When will Ethereum 2.0 finish these 7 stages and be officially released?
  2. When will Chainlink use a trusted execution environment on a large scale? If the cooperation between Intel SGX and Town Crier fails, what alternative plans are there? Will Chainlink communicate with other blockchain teams that plan to use a trusted execution environment (such as Dawn Song's Oasis Labs)?
At present, the main technical problems in the ecosystem have been solved, and now it is only necessary to recruit a group of enthusiastic developers to do the work of “connecting the line”.
Digital currency has changed commercial DNA, and the future is full of possibilities.
The only thing that hinders us now is our own imagination. The future is infinitely imaginative, and the future will be the world of developers. Dapps is already overwhelming. There is no doubt that we have found the ultimate nirvana.
This text was translated from Chinese, open following in Chrome and translate to see all images:
https://bihu.com/article/1242138347
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Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm

The TerraGreen project decided to create their own blockchain, with very different properties than other cryptocurrencies, decoupling the layer from the core blockchain protocol, offering a radical new way to create online markets and programmable transactions that are as following:
Public blockchain:
Public blockchains are just that, public. Anyone who wants to read, write, or wish to connect a public blockchain can do so. Public chains are decentralized meaning no one body has control over the network, ensuring the data can’t be changed once if it is validated on the blockchain. Simply indicates, anyone, anywhere, can use a public blockchain to input transactions and data as long as they are connected to the network.
In TerraGreen , all the nodes connected in the network can see the transaction of each other and the entire activities taken by the individuals among the network.
Private Blockchain:
Blockchains that are private or permission work similarly to public blockchains but with access controls that restrict those that can join the network, meaning it operates like a centralized database system of the present that limits access to certain users. Private Blockchains consists of one or multiple entities that control the network, which leads to the reliance on third-parties to transact.
A well-known example would be Hyperledger. Private blockchains can only be used by those who have been invited by the network’s administrators.
Centralized blockchain:
Centralized blockchains offer much more customized and control over the network to the organization deploying it as they can decide who gets to participate in the network. This signifies that not as much resources have to be invested in competing to secure the network which makes Centralized Blockchains more environment-friendly compared to their Decentralized counterparts.
In TerraGreen centralized blockchain, a group of users connected to centralized authority can only see the transactions and all the activities take placed between the connected nodes within the specific network that runs the transaction.
However, in a centralized network, only known and identified parties can transact on the ledger. Therefore, their transactions can be audited.
How blockchain technology works?
At the core of blockchains is their accord algorithm. This algorithm is based on SHA-384, which is one of the latest algorithms in today's world. This SHA- 384 algorithm is only used by the TerraGreen. At present, the most generally utilized model is proof of work (PoW) .
Well, a blockchain is a chain of blocks, ordered in a network of non-trusted peers. Each block would reference the previous one and contains data, its own hash, and the hash of the previous block. All blocks can store an amount of money, a share of the company, a digital certificate of its own ownership, a vote during an election process, or any other values.
A block for an ecommerce transaction will contain the identifiers of the retailer and consumer as well, for example. Each block also has a hash. This hash is a value generated from a string of texts using a mathematical function.
TerraGreen Token Module
Firstly, we are going to create is a “Token Module” where “Tokens” comes under the TerraGreen system which includes various of trading goods. These goods are all about the coins, all loyalty points, gold certificates, shares, IOUs, in game items, and creamy brands etc. Since long, all the tokens module implements some basic features in a standard manner, this also concludes that our token will be instantly compatible with the TerraGreen wallet and any different client or contract that uses the same standards.
TerraGreen token module comprises of IDE using Graphical user interface (GUI), where drag & drop feature is major com fort to the users.
The drag & drop features the device gestures, through which the user can select a virtual object by "grab it” and “drag it” to a particular location or onto another virtual object inside IDE.
Drag-Drop is a latest feature in today’s technology which is only available in our TerraGreen . This technique is not found in all the other software, user would find it as quick & fast-to-grasp this technique.
The token module of Terra green has an enhanced GUI features which are more convenient to the users to create its own token using TerraGreen token module.
TerraGreen tokens modules are being built on the formation of the blockchains. It’s tokens have different - different nodes through which it is accessible. And these nodes can be created using different names.
All these tokens are properties of entities. And if we add new field in node then these field will be available be as token. TerraGreen token module would require token generation and its return value properties.
Token properties will comprise of the following:
• Name of the token• Description of the token• Data type must be provided, these data type will be used for the text being processed.
The creators of the token will issue the token to others in exchange for TerraGreen and sometimes bitcoin and other digital currencies. Generally, there’s no requirement that tokens should be well distributed, although it is a decentralized application so the tokens should be owned by as many people as possible. In cryptocurrency today, a TerraGreen Coin might be a great start. The perception to presale coins of a cryptocurrency or token of a TerraGreen blockchain project will evolve in a crazy successful instrument to raise funds for the advancement of a new application.
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Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm
TerraGreen consists of a blockchain powered attempt for micromanaging biomass wastes from agricultural & forestry sectors which converts it to the renewable energy products through natural resources.
Moreover, for the Terragreen project, Terragreen would produce its own coins and these coins will be distributed to the general public for the crowdfunding. The investment made in the coins would be profitable to the major Biomass plant as well as to the general public where they can gain through their investment and plant can produce more amount of renewable products. These would help to increase the value of Terragreen coin and its products economically. Though its all about profit earnings and earning more funds.
https://preview.redd.it/4axcr2f8z5621.png?width=666&format=png&auto=webp&s=27caabe57955d8f71a59910a5357b682bae2ac2e
These renewable energy products, at the end of the process, will be in their greater heights of economic values. With TerraGreen Coin, consumers can directly participate or involve in the biomass waste management and production of renewable energy products, which in return support the green energy revolution.
TerraGreen is essentially a DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization), governed autonomously on the basis of pre-defined instructions in the form of smart contract. There are various smart contracts in a DAO.
The smart contracts delve into the realm of, but are not limited to, Combined Heat & Power Optimization (CHP), Synthetic Natural Gas, Hydrogen Production, Synthetic Fuels, SOFC, Green Chemistry, Activated Carbon, and Pulp.
This is where the blockchain technology and several sub-programs offered by TerraGreen Coin comes into the picture. Our goal is to create a truly sustainable, clean community development around the world while directly allowing consumers to directly participate in the renewable energy industry.
Types of blockchain used in Terragreen:
The Terragreen project decided to create their own blockchain, with very different properties than other cryptocurrencies, decoupling the layer from the core blockchain protocol, offering a radical new way to create online markets and programmable transactions that are as following:
Public blockchain:
Public blockchains are just that, public. Anyone who wants to read, write, or wish to connect a public blockchain can do so. Public chains are decentralized meaning no one body has control over the network, ensuring the data can’t be changed once if it is validated on the blockchain. It Simply indicates, anyone, anywhere, can use a public blockchain to input transactions and data as long as they are connected to the network.
In Terragreen, all the nodes connected in the network can see the transaction of each other and the entire activities taken by the individuals among the network.
Private Blockchain:
Blockchains that are private or permissioned work similarly to public blockchains but with access controls that restrict those that can join the network, meaning it operates like a centralized database system of present that limits access to certain users. Private Blockchains consists of one or multiple entities that control the network, which leads to the reliance on third-parties to transact.
A well-known example would be Hyperledger. Private blockchains can only be used by those who has been invited by the network’s administrators.
Centralized blockchain:
Centralized blockchains offer much more customized and control over the network to the organization deploying it as they can decide who gets to participate in the network. This signifies that not as much resources have to be invested in competing to secure the network which makes Centralized Blockchains more environment-friendly compared to their Decentralized counterparts.
In Terragreen centralized blockchain a group of users connected to centralized authority can only see the transactions and all the activities take placed between the connected nodes within the specific network that runs the transaction.
However, in a centralized network, only known and identified parties can transact on the ledger. Therefore, their transactions can be audited.
How blockchain technology works?
At the core of blockchains is their accord algorithm. This algorithm is based on SHA-384, which is one of the latest algorithm in todays world. This SHA- 384 algorithm is only used by the Terragreen. At present, the most generally utilized model is proof of work (PoW) .
Well, a blockchain is a chain of blocks, ordered in a network of non-trusted peers. Each block would reference the previous one and contains data, its own hash, and the hash of the previous block. All blocks can store an amount of money, a share of the company, a digital certificate of its own ownership, a vote during an election process, or any other values.
A block for an ecommerce transaction will contain the identifiers of the retailer and consumer as well, for example. Each block also has a hash. This hash is a value generated from a string of texts using a mathematical function.
TerraGreen Token Module
Firstly, we are going to create is a “Token Module” where “Tokens” comes under the TerraGreen system which includes various of trading goods. These goods are all about the coins, all loyalty points, gold certificates, shares, IOUs, in game items, and creamy brands etc. Since long, all the tokens module implements some basic features in a standard manner, this also concludes that our token will be instantly compatible with the TerraGreen wallet and any different client or contract that uses the same standards.
Terragreen token module comprises of IDE using Graphical user interface (GUI), where drag & drop feature is major com fort to the users.
The drag & drop features the device gestures, through which the user can select a virtual object by "grab it” and “drag it” to a particular location or onto another virtual object inside IDE.
Drag-Drop is a latest feature in today’s technology which is only available in our TerraGreen. This technique is not found in all the other software, user would find it as quick & fast-to-grasp this technique.
The token module of Terra green has an enhanced GUI features which are more convenient to the users to create its own token using terrageen token module.
TerraGreen tokens modules are being built on the formation of the blockchains. It’s tokens have different - different nodes through which it is accessible. And these nodes can be created using different names.
All these tokens are properties of entities. And if we add new field in node then these field will be available as token. Terragreen token module would require token generation and its return value properties. Token properties will comprise of the following:
• Name of the token
• Description of the token
• Data type must be provided, these data type will be used for text being processed.
The creators of the token will issue the token to others in exchange for Terragreen and sometimes bitcoin and other digital currencies.
Generally, there’s no requirement that tokens should be well distributed, although it is a decentralized application so the tokens should be owned by as many people as possible.
In cryptocurrency today, a terragreen Coin might be a great start. The perception to presale coins of a cryptocurrency or token of a Terragreen blockchain project will evolve in a crazy successful instrument to raise funds for the advancement of a new application.
submitted by tgncoin to u/tgncoin [link] [comments]

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm


The TerraGreen project decided to create their own blockchain, with very different properties than other cryptocurrencies, decoupling the layer from the core blockchain protocol, offering a radical new way to create online markets and programmable transactions that are as following:
Public blockchain:
Public blockchains are just that, public. Anyone who wants to read, write, or wish to connect a public blockchain can do so. Public chains are decentralized meaning no one body has control over the network, ensuring the data can’t be changed once if it is validated on the blockchain. Simply indicates, anyone, anywhere, can use a public blockchain to input transactions and data as long as they are connected to the network.
In TerraGreen , all the nodes connected in the network can see the transaction of each other and the entire activities taken by the individuals among the network.
Private Blockchain:
Blockchains that are private or permission work similarly to public blockchains but with access controls that restrict those that can join the network, meaning it operates like a centralized database system of the present that limits access to certain users. Private Blockchains consists of one or multiple entities that control the network, which leads to the reliance on third-parties to transact.
A well-known example would be Hyperledger. Private blockchains can only be used by those who have been invited by the network’s administrators.
Centralized blockchain:
Centralized blockchains offer much more customized and control over the network to the organization deploying it as they can decide who gets to participate in the network. This signifies that not as much resources have to be invested in competing to secure the network which makes Centralized Blockchains more environment-friendly compared to their Decentralized counterparts.
In TerraGreen centralized blockchain, a group of users connected to centralized authority can only see the transactions and all the activities take placed between the connected nodes within the specific network that runs the transaction.
However, in a centralized network, only known and identified parties can transact on the ledger. Therefore, their transactions can be audited.
How blockchain technology works?
At the core of blockchains is their accord algorithm. This algorithm is based on SHA-384, which is one of the latest algorithms in today's world. This SHA- 384 algorithm is only used by the TerraGreen. At present, the most generally utilized model is proof of work (PoW) .
Well, a blockchain is a chain of blocks, ordered in a network of non-trusted peers. Each block would reference the previous one and contains data, its own hash, and the hash of the previous block. All blocks can store an amount of money, a share of the company, a digital certificate of its own ownership, a vote during an election process, or any other values.
A block for an ecommerce transaction will contain the identifiers of the retailer and consumer as well, for example. Each block also has a hash. This hash is a value generated from a string of texts using a mathematical function.
TerraGreen Token Module
Firstly, we are going to create is a “Token Module” where “Tokens” comes under the TerraGreen system which includes various of trading goods. These goods are all about the coins, all loyalty points, gold certificates, shares, IOUs, in game items, and creamy brands etc. Since long, all the tokens module implements some basic features in a standard manner, this also concludes that our token will be instantly compatible with the TerraGreen wallet and any different client or contract that uses the same standards.
TerraGreen token module comprises of IDE using Graphical user interface (GUI), where drag & drop feature is major com fort to the users.
The drag & drop features the device gestures, through which the user can select a virtual object by "grab it” and “drag it” to a particular location or onto another virtual object inside IDE.
Drag-Drop is a latest feature in today’s technology which is only available in our TerraGreen . This technique is not found in all the other software, user would find it as quick & fast-to-grasp this technique.
The token module of Terra green has an enhanced GUI features which are more convenient to the users to create its own token using TerraGreen token module.
TerraGreen tokens modules are being built on the formation of the blockchains. It’s tokens have different - different nodes through which it is accessible. And these nodes can be created using different names.
All these tokens are properties of entities. And if we add new field in node then these field will be available be as token. TerraGreen token module would require token generation and its return value properties.
Token properties will comprise of the following:
• Name of the token• Description of the token• Data type must be provided, these data type will be used for the text being processed.
The creators of the token will issue the token to others in exchange for TerraGreen and sometimes bitcoin and other digital currencies. Generally, there’s no requirement that tokens should be well distributed, although it is a decentralized application so the tokens should be owned by as many people as possible. In cryptocurrency today, a TerraGreen Coin might be a great start. The perception to presale coins of a cryptocurrency or token of a TerraGreen blockchain project will evolve in a crazy successful instrument to raise funds for the advancement of a new application.
submitted by baoanhq9 to CryptocurrencyICO [link] [comments]

Tron v9.7.0 (2016-10-27) // Add CryptNet SSL cache clear; Add auto desktop screenshot capture; Remove filesys and reg reset jobs; Improve OneDrive detection; Fix pre-run system state capture hang

Background

Tron is a script that "fights for the User." Think of it as a "tech-on-a-thumb-drive" that automates the majority of tedious work in cleaning a Windows system.
The goal is ~85% automation, with the understanding that some things are always better left to the discretion of the tech. It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly.
Bug reports, critiques and suggestions are welcome (see how NOT to report bugs). If you have issues with this release, post a top-level comment and myself or one of the mods will answer, typically in <24 hours.

Sequence of operation

Prep > Tempclean > De-bloat > Disinfect > Repair > Patch > Optimize > Wrap-up | (Manual tools)
Saves a log to C:\Logs\tron\tron.log (configurable).
screenshots of Tron in action

Changelog

(significant changes in bold; full changelog on Github)
v9.7.0 (2016-10-27)
tron.bat
  • - Remove Filesystem Reset and Registry Reset jobs from Tron. They're rarely required and seem to hang the script on a lot of systems, so in the interest of stability they've been given the axe
  • - Remove -sfr and -srr switches along with all associated code and text due to removal of those jobs from Tron
  • - Temporarily disable use of the -udl switch, until I can find a better solution for submitting log files
Stage 0: Prep
  • + Add job to capture desktop screenshot to the RAW_LOGS folder. Sometimes a visual of the system is helpful so we capture one just in case some icons change
  • ! Prefix siv32x and siv64x commands with start instead of calling directly. Should prevent entire script stalling if SIV hangs. Thanks to gameoftomes
  • * Enable executing siv64x.exe instead of siv32x.exe on 64-bit systems. Thanks to gameoftomes
Stage 2: De-bloat
  • * Significantly improve robustness of OneDrive checks. OneDrive now only removed if system is Win10, folder exists in default location, and is empty. Thanks to ranger_dood
Stage 3: Disinfect
Stage 4: Repair
  • - Remove job Reset Filesystem permissions and associated files and code
  • - Remove job Reset Registry permission and associated files and code
Stage 5: Patch
  • * Update 7-Zip binaries to v17.04
  • * Update Adobe Flash binaries to v23.0.0.205
  • * Update Java Runtime Environment binaries to 8u112

Download

  1. Primary method: Download a self-extracting .exe pack from one of the mirrors:
    Mirror HTTPS HTTP Location Host
    Official link link US-TX SGC-Hosting
    #1 link link US-NY danodemano
    #2 link link US-GA TheCronus89
    #3 link link DE bodkov
    #4 link link NZ iDanoo
    #5 link link FR mxmod
    #6 --- link US-TX RB14060 (XygenHosting)
    #7 link link Cloudflare TheSqrtMinus1
    #8 --- link FR Falkerz
    #9 link --- US-MI ajcutshall
    #10 --- link UK nickuk (ClanPlanet)
    #11 link --- AU agent-squirrel
  2. Secondary: Use Resilio Sync (formerly "BT Sync") to sync to the repo. You'll receive updates and patches immediately as I push them. After installing, use the applicable read-only key to connect to the respective repo:
    Release: BYQYYECDOJPXYA2ZNUDWDN34O2GJHBM47 Dev: BDCF7MUDXNIDEK2KQ6DHV5ALIGIWD257O 
  3. Tertiary: Connect to the SyncThing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method has some risks and you should only use it if you know about them.
  4. Quaternary: Source code
    All the code for Tron is available on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~500MB package, Github is a good place to do it.

Command-Line Support

Tron has full command-line support. All flags are optional, can be used simultaneously, and override their respective script default when used.
Usage: tron.bat [-a -c -d -dev -e -er -m -o -p -r -sa -sdb -sd -sdc -sdu -se -sfr -sk -sm -sp -spr -srr -ss -str -sw -udl -v -x] | [-h] Optional flags (can be combined): -a Automatic mode (no welcome screen or prompts; implies -e) -c Config dump (display current config. Can be used with other flags to see what WOULD happen, but script will never execute if this flag is used) -d Dry run (run through script without executing any jobs) -dev Override OS detection (allow running on unsupported Windows versions) -e Accept EULA (suppress display of disclaimer warning screen) -er Email a report when finished. Requires you to configure SwithMailSettings.xml -m Preserve OEM Metro apps (don't remove them) -np Skip the pause at the end of the script -o Power off after running (overrides -r) -p Preserve power settings (don't reset power settings to default) -r Reboot automatically (auto-reboot 30 seconds after completion) -sa Skip anti-virus scans (MBAM, KVRT, Sophos) -sdb Skip de-bloat (OEM bloatware removal; implies -m) -sd Skip defrag (force Tron to ALWAYS skip Stage 5 defrag) -sdc Skip DISM component (SxS store) cleanup -sdu Skip debloat update. Prevent Tron from auto-updating the S2 debloat lists -se Skip Event Log clearing -sfr Skip filesystem permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -sk Skip Kaspersky Virus Rescue Tool (KVRT) scan -sm Skip Malwarebytes Anti-Malware (MBAM) installation -sp Skip patches (do not patch 7-Zip, Java Runtime, Adobe Flash or Reader) -spr Skip page file settings reset (don't set to "Let Windows manage the page file") -srr Skip registry permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -ss Skip Sophos Anti-Virus (SAV) scan -str Skip Telemetry Removal (don't remove Windows user tracking, Win7 and up only) -sw Skip Windows Updates (do not attempt to run Windows Update) -udl Upload debug logs. Send tron.log and the system GUID dump to the Tron developer -v Verbose. Show as much output as possible. NOTE: Significantly slower! -x Self-destruct. Tron deletes itself after running and leaves logs intact Misc flags (must be used alone): -h Display this help text 

Integrity

\tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt contains SHA-256 checksums for every file and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2; included). You can use this to verify package integrity.
Donations (bitcoin): 16dxc4hgzuXYSKGbLuEVxXQCM8dW59ZSCe
"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act." -p3:27
submitted by vocatus to TronScript [link] [comments]

Tron v9.4.1 (2016-09-08) AQ // Fix critical bug in S2 update checker; implement SSL on all update checks; update KVRT

Background

Tron is a script that "fights for the User." Think of it as a "tech-on-a-thumb-drive" that automates the majority of tedious work in cleaning a Windows system.
The goal is ~85% automation, with the understanding that some things are always better left to the discretion of the tech. It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly.
Bug reports, critiques and suggestions are welcome (see how NOT to report bugs). If you have issues with this release, post a top-level comment and myself or one of the mods will answer, typically in <24 hours.

Sequence of operation

Prep > Tempclean > De-bloat > Disinfect > Repair > Patch > Optimize > Wrap-up | (Manual tools)
Saves a log to C:\Logs\tron\tron.log (configurable).
screenshots of Tron in action

Changelog

(significant changes in bold; full changelog on Github)
v9.4.1 (2016-09-08) AQ
  • AQ = Released from Antarctica
tron.bat
  • . No changes to tron.bat; increment version number only
check_update.bat
  • - Remove --ca-certificate=stage_0_prep\check_update\bmrf.org.pem declarative from wget calls, due to upgrading Tron's internal wget version to v1.18
check_update_debloat_lists.bat
  • - Remove --no-check-certificate statement from wget commands, due to upgrade of Tron's internal wget.exe to v1.18. This enables proper SSL encryption when checking Github for new S2 debloat lists
  • ! Remove erroneous debugging statement that was mistakenly left in. It flagged the local 3rd party Metro list as being out of date regardless of version
  • + Add preloading of variables so the script doesn't crash if it can't detect a version number correctly. Thanks to Karmaisthedevil
Stage 0: Prep

Download

  1. Primary method: Download a self-extracting .exe pack from one of the mirrors:
    Mirror HTTPS HTTP Location Host
    Official link link US-TX SGC-Hosting
    #1 link link US-NY danodemano
    #2 link link US-GA TheCronus89
    #3 link link DE bodkov
    #4 link link NZ iDanoo
    #5 link link FR mxmod
    #6 --- link US-TX RB14060 (XygenHosting)
    #7 link link Cloudflare TheSqrtMinus1
    #8 --- link FR Falkerz
    #9 link --- US-MI ajcutshall
    #10 --- link UK nickuk (ClanPlanet)
    #11 link --- AU agent-squirrel
  2. Secondary: The BT Sync key is no longer published because it was having issues with large swarms (failed to replicate reliably). You can get the key from an old thread or just download from one of the static pack mirrors instead.
  3. Tertiary: Connect to the SyncThing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method has some risks and you should only use it if you know about them.
  4. Quaternary: Source code
    All the code for Tron is available here on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~500MB package, or want to contribute to the project, Github is a good place to do it.

Command-Line Support

Tron has full command-line support. All flags are optional, can be used simultaneously, and override their respective script default when used.
Usage: tron.bat [-a -c -d -dev -e -er -m -o -p -r -sa -sdb -sd -sdc -sdu -se -sfr -sk -sm -sp -spr -srr -ss -str -sw -v -x] | [-h] Optional flags (can be combined): -a Automatic mode (no welcome screen or prompts; implies -e) -c Config dump (display current config. Can be used with other flags to see what WOULD happen, but script will never execute if this flag is used) -d Dry run (run through script without executing any jobs) -dev Override OS detection (allow running on unsupported Windows versions) -e Accept EULA (suppress display of disclaimer warning screen) -er Email a report when finished. Requires you to configure SwithMailSettings.xml -m Preserve OEM Metro apps (don't remove them) -np Skip the pause at the end of the script -o Power off after running (overrides -r) -p Preserve power settings (don't reset power settings to default) -r Reboot automatically (auto-reboot 30 seconds after completion) -sa Skip anti-virus scans (MBAM, KVRT, Sophos) -sdb Skip de-bloat (OEM bloatware removal; implies -m) -sd Skip defrag (force Tron to ALWAYS skip Stage 5 defrag) -sdc Skip DISM component (SxS store) cleanup -sdu Skip debloat update. Prevent Tron from auto-updating the S2 debloat lists -se Skip Event Log clearing -sfr Skip filesystem permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -sk Skip Kaspersky Virus Rescue Tool (KVRT) scan -sm Skip Malwarebytes Anti-Malware (MBAM) installation -sp Skip patches (do not patch 7-Zip, Java Runtime, Adobe Flash or Reader) -spr Skip page file settings reset (don't set to "Let Windows manage the page file") -srr Skip registry permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -ss Skip Sophos Anti-Virus (SAV) scan -str Skip Telemetry Removal (don't remove Windows user tracking, Win7 and up only) -sw Skip Windows Updates (do not attempt to run Windows Update) -v Verbose. Show as much output as possible. NOTE: Significantly slower! -x Self-destruct. Tron deletes itself after running and leaves logs intact Misc flags (must be used alone): -h Display this help text 

Integrity

\tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt contains SHA-256 checksums for every file and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2; included). You can use this to verify package integrity.
Donations (bitcoin): 16dxc4hgzuXYSKGbLuEVxXQCM8dW59ZSCe
"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act." -p3:27
submitted by vocatus to TronScript [link] [comments]

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm
TerraGreen consists of a blockchain powered attempt for micromanaging biomass wastes from agricultural & forestry sectors which converts it to the renewable energy products through natural resources.
Moreover, for the Terragreen project, Terragreen would produce its own coins and these coins will be distributed to the general public for the crowdfunding. The investment made in the coins would be profitable to the major Biomass plant as well as to the general public where they can gain through their investment and plant can produce more amount of renewable products. These would help to increase the value of Terragreen coin and its products economically. Though its all about profit earnings and earning more funds.

https://preview.redd.it/5y1ene4tyxd21.png?width=666&format=png&auto=webp&s=eb5b28da912379ffa5a046a1b8874c780d40db35
These renewable energy products, at the end of the process, will be in their greater heights of economic values. With TerraGreen Coin, consumers can directly participate or involve in the biomass waste management and production of renewable energy products, which in return support the green energy revolution.
TerraGreen is essentially a DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization), governed autonomously on the basis of pre-defined instructions in the form of smart contract. There are various smart contracts in a DAO.
The smart contracts delve into the realm of, but are not limited to, Combined Heat & Power Optimization (CHP), Synthetic Natural Gas, Hydrogen Production, Synthetic Fuels, SOFC, Green Chemistry, Activated Carbon, and Pulp.
This is where the blockchain technology and several sub-programs offered by TerraGreen Coin comes into the picture. Our goal is to create a truly sustainable, clean community development around the world while directly allowing consumers to directly participate in the renewable energy industry.
Types of blockchain used in Terragreen:
The Terragreen project decided to create their own blockchain, with very different properties than other cryptocurrencies, decoupling the layer from the core blockchain protocol, offering a radical new way to create online markets and programmable transactions that are as following:
Public blockchain:
Public blockchains are just that, public. Anyone who wants to read, write, or wish to connect a public blockchain can do so. Public chains are decentralized meaning no one body has control over the network, ensuring the data can’t be changed once if it is validated on the blockchain. It Simply indicates, anyone, anywhere, can use a public blockchain to input transactions and data as long as they are connected to the network.
In Terragreen, all the nodes connected in the network can see the transaction of each other and the entire activities taken by the individuals among the network.
Private Blockchain:
Blockchains that are private or permissioned work similarly to public blockchains but with access controls that restrict those that can join the network, meaning it operates like a centralized database system of present that limits access to certain users. Private Blockchains consists of one or multiple entities that control the network, which leads to the reliance on third-parties to transact.
A well-known example would be Hyperledger. Private blockchains can only be used by those who has been invited by the network’s administrators.
Centralized blockchain:
Centralized blockchains offer much more customized and control over the network to the organization deploying it as they can decide who gets to participate in the network. This signifies that not as much resources have to be invested in competing to secure the network which makes Centralized Blockchains more environment-friendly compared to their Decentralized counterparts.
In Terragreen centralized blockchain a group of users connected to centralized authority can only see the transactions and all the activities take placed between the connected nodes within the specific network that runs the transaction.
However, in a centralized network, only known and identified parties can transact on the ledger. Therefore, their transactions can be audited.
How blockchain technology works?
At the core of blockchains is their accord algorithm. This algorithm is based on SHA-384, which is one of the latest algorithm in todays world. This SHA- 384 algorithm is only used by the Terragreen. At present, the most generally utilized model is proof of work (PoW) .
Well, a blockchain is a chain of blocks, ordered in a network of non-trusted peers. Each block would reference the previous one and contains data, its own hash, and the hash of the previous block. All blocks can store an amount of money, a share of the company, a digital certificate of its own ownership, a vote during an election process, or any other values.
A block for an ecommerce transaction will contain the identifiers of the retailer and consumer as well, for example. Each block also has a hash. This hash is a value generated from a string of texts using a mathematical function.
TerraGreen Token Module
Firstly, we are going to create is a “Token Module” where “Tokens” comes under the TerraGreen system which includes various of trading goods. These goods are all about the coins, all loyalty points, gold certificates, shares, IOUs, in game items, and creamy brands etc. Since long, all the tokens module implements some basic features in a standard manner, this also concludes that our token will be instantly compatible with the TerraGreen wallet and any different client or contract that uses the same standards.
Terragreen token module comprises of IDE using Graphical user interface (GUI), where drag & drop feature is major com fort to the users.
The drag & drop features the device gestures, through which the user can select a virtual object by "grab it” and “drag it” to a particular location or onto another virtual object inside IDE.
Drag-Drop is a latest feature in today’s technology which is only available in our TerraGreen. This technique is not found in all the other software, user would find it as quick & fast-to-grasp this technique.
The token module of Terra green has an enhanced GUI features which are more convenient to the users to create its own token using terrageen token module.
TerraGreen tokens modules are being built on the formation of the blockchains. It’s tokens have different - different nodes through which it is accessible. And these nodes can be created using different names.
All these tokens are properties of entities. And if we add new field in node then these field will be available as token. Terragreen token module would require token generation and its return value properties. Token properties will comprise of the following:
• Name of the token
• Description of the token
• Data type must be provided, these data type will be used for text being processed.
The creators of the token will issue the token to others in exchange for Terragreen and sometimes bitcoin and other digital currencies.
Generally, there’s no requirement that tokens should be well distributed, although it is a decentralized application so the tokens should be owned by as many people as possible.
In cryptocurrency today, a terragreen Coin might be a great start. The perception to presale coins of a cryptocurrency or token of a Terragreen blockchain project will evolve in a crazy successful instrument to raise funds for the advancement of a new application.
submitted by terragreencoin to u/terragreencoin [link] [comments]

Tron v9.2.0 (2016-08-12) AQ // Implement proper SSL encryption on update checker; Add automatic GUID dumping; Automatically apply w10 Anti-Beacon immunizations

Background

Tron is a script that "fights for the User." Think of it as a "tech-on-a-thumb-drive" that automates the majority of tedious work in cleaning a Windows system.
The goal is ~85% automation, with the understanding that some things are always better left to the discretion of the tech. It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly.
Bug reports, critiques and suggestions are welcome (see how NOT to report bugs). If you have issues with this release, post a top-level comment and myself or one of the mods will answer, typically in <24 hours.
screenshots here

Sequence of operation

Prep > Tempclean > De-bloat > Disinfect > Repair > Patch > Optimize > Wrap-up | (Manual tools)
Saves a log to C:\Logs\tron\tron.log (configurable).

Changelog

(significant changes in bold; full changelog on Github)
v9.2.0 (2016-08-12) AQ
  • AQ = Released from Antarctica
tron.bat
  • / tron:prep: Remove www from the URL in the REPO_URL variable. This is related to fixing SSL encryption on the update checker
update_check.bat
  • ! Implement proper SSL encryption on the update check and auto-download mechanisms. Previously we were skipping certificate checking due to cert errors. We now properly establish a valid SSL connection to the repo
Stage 0: Prep
  • + Add automatic dumping of all GUIDs to the RAW_LOGS folder. This way users will always have the GUID's of the system as they existed before Tron ran. Should make it easier to submit the lists for review
Stage 3: Disinfect
  • * Update Sophos and MBAM definitions to latest
Stage 4: Repair
  • + Integrate Spybot Anti-Beacon directly into Windows 10 telemetry purge script. Tron now automatically applies all Spybot Anti-Beacon immunizations on Windows 10 systems
Stage 6: Optimize
  • * Update smartctl.exe to v6.5.0.4318 2016-05-07 r4318. smartctl.exe This improves Tron's ability to detect SSD's and potentially failing disks
  • * Update smartctl.exe's supporting drive database (drivedb.h) to 2016-05-06 20:12:45Z

Download

  1. Primary method: Download a self-extracting .exe pack from one of the mirrors:
    Mirror HTTPS HTTP Location Host
    Official link link US-TX SGC-Hosting
    #1 link link US-NY danodemano
    #2 link link US-GA TheCronus89
    #3 link link DE bodkov
    #4 link link NZ iDanoo
    #5 link link FR mxmod
    #6 --- link US-TX RB14060 (XygenHosting)
    #7 link link Cloudflare TheSqrtMinus1
    #8 --- link FR Falkerz
    #9 link --- US-MI ajcutshall
    #10 --- link UK nickuk (ClanPlanet)
  2. Secondary: The BT Sync key is no longer published because it was having issues with large swarms (failed to replicate reliably). You can get the key from an old thread or just download from one of the static pack mirrors instead.
  3. Tertiary: Connect to the SyncThing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method has some risks and you should only use it if you know about them.
  4. Quaternary: Source code
    All the code for Tron is available here on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~500MB package, or want to contribute to the project, Github is a good place to do it.

Command-Line Support

Tron has full command-line support. All flags are optional, can be used simultaneously, and override their respective script default when used.
Usage: tron.bat [-a -c -d -dev -e -er -m -o -p -r -sa -sdb -sd -sdc -se -sfr -sk -sm -sp -spr -srr -ss -str -sw -v -x] | [-h] Optional flags (can be combined): -a Automatic mode (no welcome screen or prompts; implies -e) -c Config dump (display current config. Can be used with other flags to see what WOULD happen, but script will never execute if this flag is used) -d Dry run (run through script without executing any jobs) -dev Override OS detection (allow running on unsupported Windows versions) -e Accept EULA (suppress display of disclaimer warning screen) -er Email a report when finished. Requires you to configure SwithMailSettings.xml -m Preserve OEM Metro apps (don't remove them) -np Skip the pause at the end of the script -o Power off after running (overrides -r) -p Preserve power settings (don't reset power settings to default) -r Reboot automatically (auto-reboot 30 seconds after completion) -sa Skip anti-virus scans (MBAM, KVRT, Sophos) -sdb Skip de-bloat (OEM bloatware removal; implies -m) -sd Skip defrag (force Tron to ALWAYS skip Stage 5 defrag) -sdc Skip DISM component (SxS store) cleanup -se Skip Event Log clearing -sfr Skip filesystem permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -sk Skip Kaspersky Virus Rescue Tool (KVRT) scan -sm Skip Malwarebytes Anti-Malware (MBAM) installation -sp Skip patches (do not patch 7-Zip, Java Runtime, Adobe Flash or Reader) -spr Skip page file settings reset (don't set to "Let Windows manage the page file") -srr Skip registry permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -ss Skip Sophos Anti-Virus (SAV) scan -str Skip Telemetry Removal (don't remove Windows user tracking, Win7 and up only) -sw Skip Windows Updates (do not attempt to run Windows Update) -v Verbose. Show as much output as possible. NOTE: Significantly slower! -x Self-destruct. Tron deletes itself after running and leaves logs intact Misc flags (must be used alone): -h Display this help text 

Integrity

\tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt contains SHA-256 checksums for every file and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2; included). You can use this to verify package integrity.
Donations (bitcoin): 16dxc4hgzuXYSKGbLuEVxXQCM8dW59ZSCe
"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act." -p3:27
submitted by vocatus to TronScript [link] [comments]

Tron v9.2.0 is out // Implement proper SSL encryption on update checker; automatic GUID dumping and auto-apply w10 Anti-Beacon immunizations

[x-post /TronScript]

Background

Tron is a script that "fights for the User." Think of it as a "tech-on-a-thumb-drive" that automates the majority of tedious work in cleaning a Windows system.
The goal is ~85% automation, with the understanding that some things are always better left to the discretion of the tech. It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly.
Bug reports, critiques and suggestions are welcome (see how NOT to report bugs). If you have issues with this release, post a top-level comment and myself or one of the mods will answer, typically in <24 hours.
screenshots here

Sequence of operation

Prep > Tempclean > De-bloat > Disinfect > Repair > Patch > Optimize > Wrap-up | (Manual tools)
Saves a log to C:\Logs\tron\tron.log (configurable).

Changelog

(significant changes in bold; full changelog on Github)
v9.2.0 (2016-08-12) AQ
  • AQ = Released from Antarctica
tron.bat
  • / tron:prep: Remove www from the URL in the REPO_URL variable. This is related to fixing SSL encryption on the update checker
update_check.bat
  • ! Implement proper SSL encryption on the update check and auto-download mechanisms. Previously we were skipping certificate checking due to cert errors. We now properly establish a valid SSL connection to the repo
Stage 0: Prep
  • + Add automatic dumping of all GUIDs to the RAW_LOGS folder. This way users will always have the GUID's of the system as they existed before Tron ran. Should make it easier to submit the lists for review
Stage 3: Disinfect
  • * Update Sophos and MBAM definitions to latest
Stage 4: Repair
  • + Integrate Spybot Anti-Beacon directly into Windows 10 telemetry purge script. Tron now automatically applies all Spybot Anti-Beacon immunizations on Windows 10 systems
Stage 6: Optimize
  • * Update smartctl.exe to v6.5.0.4318 2016-05-07 r4318. smartctl.exe This improves Tron's ability to detect SSD's and potentially failing disks
  • * Update smartctl.exe's supporting drive database (drivedb.h) to 2016-05-06 20:12:45Z

Download

  1. Primary method: Download a self-extracting .exe pack from one of the mirrors:
    Mirror HTTPS HTTP Location Host
    Official link link US-TX SGC-Hosting
    #1 link link US-NY danodemano
    #2 link link US-GA TheCronus89
    #3 link link DE bodkov
    #4 link link NZ iDanoo
    #5 link link FR mxmod
    #6 --- link US-TX RB14060 (XygenHosting)
    #7 link link Cloudflare TheSqrtMinus1
    #8 --- link FR Falkerz
    #9 link --- US-MI ajcutshall
    #10 --- link UK nickuk (ClanPlanet)
  2. Secondary: The BT Sync key is no longer published because it was having issues with large swarms (failed to replicate reliably). You can get the key from an old thread or just download from one of the static pack mirrors instead.
  3. Tertiary: Connect to the SyncThing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method is in TESTING may not be reliable.
  4. Quaternary: Source code
    All the code for Tron is available here on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~500MB package, or want to contribute to the project, Github is a good place to do it.

Command-Line Support

Tron has full command-line support. All flags are optional, can be used simultaneously, and override their respective script default when used.
Usage: tron.bat [-a -c -d -dev -e -er -m -o -p -r -sa -sdb -sd -sdc -se -sfr -sk -sm -sp -spr -srr -ss -str -sw -v -x] | [-h] Optional flags (can be combined): -a Automatic mode (no welcome screen or prompts; implies -e) -c Config dump (display current config. Can be used with other flags to see what WOULD happen, but script will never execute if this flag is used) -d Dry run (run through script without executing any jobs) -dev Override OS detection (allow running on unsupported Windows versions) -e Accept EULA (suppress display of disclaimer warning screen) -er Email a report when finished. Requires you to configure SwithMailSettings.xml -m Preserve OEM Metro apps (don't remove them) -np Skip the pause at the end of the script -o Power off after running (overrides -r) -p Preserve power settings (don't reset power settings to default) -r Reboot automatically (auto-reboot 30 seconds after completion) -sa Skip anti-virus scans (MBAM, KVRT, Sophos) -sdb Skip de-bloat (OEM bloatware removal; implies -m) -sd Skip defrag (force Tron to ALWAYS skip Stage 5 defrag) -sdc Skip DISM component (SxS store) cleanup -se Skip Event Log clearing -sfr Skip filesystem permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -sk Skip Kaspersky Virus Rescue Tool (KVRT) scan -sm Skip Malwarebytes Anti-Malware (MBAM) installation -sp Skip patches (do not patch 7-Zip, Java Runtime, Adobe Flash or Reader) -spr Skip page file settings reset (don't set to "Let Windows manage the page file") -srr Skip registry permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -ss Skip Sophos Anti-Virus (SAV) scan -str Skip Telemetry Removal (don't remove Windows user tracking, Win7 and up only) -sw Skip Windows Updates (do not attempt to run Windows Update) -v Verbose. Show as much output as possible. NOTE: Significantly slower! -x Self-destruct. Tron deletes itself after running and leaves logs intact Misc flags (must be used alone): -h Display this help text 

Integrity

\tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt contains SHA-256 checksums for every file and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2; included). You can use this to verify package integrity.
Donations (bitcoin): 16dxc4hgzuXYSKGbLuEVxXQCM8dW59ZSCe
"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act." -p3:27
submitted by vocatus to sysadmin [link] [comments]

What is ILCoin (ILC)?

ABOUT US Who we are? ILCOIN is a modern alternative to Bitcoin developed by R&G GmbH, using SHA-256 encryption technology. ILCOIN is not dependent on the present banking system. It has its own independent value. There are 2.5 billion ILCOIN available. Users all around the world use ILCOIN; mostly residing in Asia.
2.5 Billion ILCOIN
Users all around the world
170 k TX per block
SMART contracts What makes us different? ILCOIN can be safely stored in wallets built for the Cloud, Android, OSX and PC and it can be transferred directly to anyone instantly at virtually no cost – without banks, without chargebacks. ILCOIN users can monitor their transactions through our own block explorer. The system is already capable of handling up to 170 k TX per block, and it is compatible with today’s crypto platforms. ILCOIN is listed and freely traded on several cryptocurrency exchange sites and it is accepted online by merchants in an ever-increasing number of countries. We will be the first blockchain with SHA-256 technology to be able to create smart contracts. Our support center is always available to assist you with any issue that might arise during the use of our products. We also have tutorials to help you feel more comfortable and confident when interacting with our products. OUR HISTORY ILCOIN IS BORN 2015 ILGAMOS International Ltd. introduces ILCOIN cryptocurrency which was purchased by thousands of people in the first period of time after being issued.
ILCOIN BLOCK EXPLORER 2016 Q1 “Log in to a safe and encrypted site!”
Redesign of the ILCOIN Block Explorer. Correction of every entry from BTC to ILC. 1.0 Security Upgrade: Implementation of SSH Keys, Firewall, VPN, Public Key Infrastructure and SSL/TLS. Encryption, SSL Certificate with 256 bits of encryption. Activation of the message verification. Creation of the login module.
UPGRADED ILCOIN WEB WALLET 2016 Q3 "Where you can create your encrypted web wallet and start to trade with ILCOINs."
Redesign of the Web Wallet, improving wallet security issues; forcing encryption of all wallets. Implementation of the option of different fiat currencies in order to know the actual price of ILC. Implementation of a dynamic graph in order to know the historical price of ILC. Upgrade the security of the site and also added a SSL certificate to assure the connection security. New Graph Options. Improved Security. Upgraded Server Back-End Security.
ANDROID/IOS ILCOIN WALLET 2017 Q1 "Have access to your ILCOIN no matter where you are, with the most advanced ILCOIN application!"
Layout Design. Encryption of the wallets and mnemonic phrase for recovering the wallet. Multi-Address System. Implementation of a label and password for every wallet in your device. Availability to see the unconfirmed balance. QR Code reader for sending ILC and QR Generator for receiving ILC. Transaction history. Dynamic graph with historical ILC/USD price. Transaction fee configuration. Sign and verify message. Set Default Wallet (every time you open the app, that will be the one to open).
ILCOIN SMART CONTRACTS 2019 Contracts between parties. Define rules and penalties for each type of contract. Up to 5 type of contract to define. Example type of contract exchange properties. Example type of contract exchange shares.
EXCHANGE LIST
Binance
Huobi
Kucoin
Bibox
Qryptos
Satoexchange
BIGone
Bitrue
Bilaxy
Bit-Z
Linkcoin
SECURE WALLET
Ledgerwallet
Trezor
submitted by icoinformation2021 to ILCoin [link] [comments]

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: After Butterfly Labs collapses, engineers find new jobs at 21 Inc.

BEGIN BLOG POST

After Butterfly Labs collapses, engineers find new jobs at 21 Inc.

A bitcoin miner has shipped on time. Yes, that is news. A new venture-capital backed company, 21 Inc., has released a miniature bitcoin miner that they call a "Bitcoin computer". For $399.99, you get a Raspberry Pi, an SHA-256 ASIC board, and a giant fan.
Again, this is news: normally, a manufacturer of bitcoin miners would overdesign and underengineer their equipment, or, if they managed to ship something functional, it would be so poorly engineered -- and over budget -- that it be an explosion waiting to happen and/or priced comparably to a four-door sedan.
21 Inc. has done something remarkable in the Bitcoin world: they started a company that operates like a legitimate business. They're even listed on Amazon.com, a company that's so strict with vendors that Nintendo was kicked off their system for not kissing enough customer ass.
Okay, enough with the praise.

This thing sucks.

The 21.co "computer" certainly deserves a place in the VC world, along with the other products consisting of wild promises and inane use cases. For the price of 4 Raspberry Pi computer kits, you get the following:
(If you have a remote desire to develop applications that use bitcoin, stop here. Go through that list and buy just those items above. You don't need anything else. If you're looking for comedy, or if you're a sucker with too much money, read on...)

Is that all I get for my money?

Those products alone don't allow you to make Bitcoin applications, apparently. You need these things, too:

How about the software demos?

It's difficult to justify developing a $400 computer that can't do much. So, to entice some customers, 21 Inc. included demos that try really hard to make customers feel inspired. Here are just a few things that 21 Inc. claims were totally impossible before their product existed:

What are the real customers saying?

The packaging is slick:
"This @21dotco computer came already opened..."
The hardware is reliable:
"...it must have lost power, which caused my SSH keys to become corrupted."
The software is revolutionary:
"...it will be more expensive to pay for your spotify subscription via your electricity bill, but a lot of people don't care."

I want to buy it anyway!

Go ahead. I won't stop you. Oh, and 21 Inc. doesn't accept bitcoins.
END BLOG POST
submitted by theirmoss to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

I posted this on the other sub and it wasn't well received....

"I love learning about this thing and I think Bitcoin / the cryptocurrency is the future. It's the next big thing along with Artificial Intelligence and the quantum computer. Just like the invention of the personal computer was big, just like the invention of the internet was big, I think Bitcoin / the decentralized cryptocurrency is the next thing.
I'm still a beginner but I thought I'd contribute as much as I know so that others would not waste time like I did, while the price is rising at a tremendous rate.
And, all those softwares like Breadwallet, Airbitz, bitaddress.org - how do we know that they're not giving us already known Key Pairs?
Sure, programmers can audit the code on Github and compile it, but for non-programmers, there's no way to know.
I see lots of people "buying" their bitcoin on Coinbase or other exchanges and think that's it. If the bitcoin is not in your address and you don't own the Private Key, you don't own the bitcoin..
So, the following may seem paranoid but, these are the steps that I found (for the experienced bitcoiners, please just scan through it. You'd probably know all these already):
Using Bitcoin Core
  1. If you can read code and know how to compile the code from github, download it, use a new USB Stick to transfer it to a literally virgin computer which will be airgapped, and compile it and use it there.
  2. If you can't read code and don't know how to compile stuff, download the binary file from bitcoin.org and hashcheck it. Don't just compare the hash with the text file you downloaded from bitcoin.org. Check out the hashes posted by all the core developers on Github.
  3. Write down the generated Key Pairs on a paper with a waterproof ink and store it somewhere safe. Engraving the Key Pairs on a metal strip and storing it in a safe is also a good idea in case of fire. You can also print it out but, be sure to use a printer that doesn't have wifi and doesn't have a memory that can store data, and don't let anyone use it. Also back up the Key Pairs in an encrypted USB Stick and tell your family to take it in case of fire, so that even if the safe is destroyed, you would still have the Key Pairs.
For those of you "buying" bitcoins at Exchanges.
  1. I've never used an Exchange because they ask for the email and stuff to create an account and I live in a very poor closed country so, I cannot sign up there (I don't really know how I can buy bitcoin since I literally live in the middle of nowhere. It doesn't support international credit cards, debit cards, paypal, nothing.. I'd be very very happy if you'd donate some bitcoin to me. 1GaCyMgNbvVatrn9UBxn24MZ6NgXztTPPB If begging for donations is frowned upon, really please let me know and I'll erase it.), but as far as I know, when you "buy" your bitcoin there, you don't own your bitcoin yet until you transfer them to your actual Address. So, when you buy from the exchange, please transfer the bitcoin into your actual Address. You don't own your bitcoin if you don't know the private keys. I heard that Coinbase is insured, but still, actually having the bitcoin in your Address is better.
  2. Buying from ATMs is the best, I think. Also, buy in small amounts. For example, if you want to buy a $500 worth of bitcoin, instead of buying it in one go at the ATM, buy for $100 ten times.
Further look into the "virgin" computer
  1. If it's an old computer, it's not "virgin"
  2. Even if you format the hard drive, some viruses/malwares can still survive. And there are still viruses/malwares that can stay on the motherboard and bios.
  3. What if those viruses/malwares generate predictable Private Keys for you? What if those viruses/malwares generates already known Key Pairs for you? The keys won't escape the computer, but you'd be using the malicious individual's keys.
If you don't know much about Bitcoin because you're still studying it to have the technical knowledge,
  1. First, learn security - make sure you know how to create secure-enough Key Pairs first. You can study how the Bitcoin network works later, after you've bought some bitcoin. Learn more while you're holding.
  2. Second, learn about Game Theory, and incentives, so that even if you don't have the technical knowledge, you can make risk assessments and choose who you can trust.
  3. Continue learning about cryptography - interesting stuff like hashes, RSA, SHA's, SSL Certificates, signing, trust chains, etc. I think know these will help you understand more about crytocurrency. May be as cryptocurrency gets mainstream, you'd be able to make a career out of it, who knows? You'd be one of the pioneers if you start studying it right now. Also learn more about processors and harware so that hardware companies wouldn't be able to screw you over.
Sorry if it's not complete. I'll continue to learn more about security, bitcoin and how cryptology works, improve my English and may be post more in the future."
(I was never a fanboy of Bitcoin and apparently they don't want to encourage rational thinking. I'm an open-minded beginner and I like to learn about other cryptocurrencies as well, which is why I'm here, guys. But I left that dishonest sub for good. The amount of ignorant people in there is staggering!
Edit - Oh I see. They don't want to encourage average Joes to learn the proper method of creating keypairs and properly storing bitcoin. They want people to store their money on exchanges I see lol)
submitted by CasualManhaha to btc [link] [comments]

My Collection of information for when someone states where does Bitcoin, or Crypto-currencies derive their value

Let’s start with some basics first then we can move forward. Your question is where does Bitcoin derive its value from? Well that is a multifaceted answer. Its Utility creates the demand, plus it has a relatively high scarcity, but that is an over-simplified answer. A few other factors need to be addressed. The first point is the security of the block-chain, and the second is the openness of the block-chain which is derived from the public ledger. It literally records every transaction for public records which are available to any, and everyone to review. This allows it to stand up to public scrutiny, and a thorough technical analysis.
We will start here for you. This is the basis of the whole concept.
A Block-chain is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography. Each block typically contains a hash pointer as a link to a previous block, a timestamp and transaction data. By design, block-chains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. A block-chain is defined as an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two, or more parties efficiently and in a verifiable, and permanent way. For use as a distributed ledger, a block-chain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority.
Block-chains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a block-chain. This makes block-chains potentially suitable for the recording of events, medical records, and other records management activities, such as identity management, transaction processing, documenting provenance, or food traceability. The invention of the block-chain for bitcoin made it the first digital currency to solve the double spending problem without the need of a trusted authority or central server. The bitcoin design has been the inspiration for other applications. Block-chain also has incorporated the Merkle Tree, and Fast Merkle Trees. A Hash tree or Merkle tree is a tree in which every leaf node is labelled with a data block and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. Hash trees allow efficient and secure verification of the contents of large data structures. Hash trees are a generalization of hash lists and hash chains. Demonstrating that a leaf node is a part of a given binary hash tree requires computing a number of hashes proportional to the logarithm of the number of leaf nodes of the tree; this contrasts with hash lists, where the number is proportional to the number of leaf nodes itself. Hash trees can be used to verify any kind of data stored, handled and transferred in and between computers. Currently the main use of hash trees is to make sure that data blocks received from other peers in a peer-to-peer network are received undamaged and unaltered, and even to check that the other peers do not lie and send fake blocks. Suggestions have been made to use hash trees in trusted computing systems. Hash trees are also used in hash-based cryptography.
Hash trees are used in the IPFS, Btrfs and ZFS file systems (to counter data degradation), BitTorrent protocol, Dat protocol, Apache Wave protocol, the Bitcoin and Ethereum peer-to-peer networks, the Certificate Transparency framework, and a number of NoSQL.
Whether you understand it, or not we will be moving more to this as a standard for all most all industries. Yes, the United States is looking at getting rid of Social Security numbers in favor of your identity being stored on the block-chain, in fact it is already in the works as they are in the research of feasibility stage.
What you need to is familiarize yourself with the following regarding block-chain protocols.
Proof of Work (POW) A Proof of Work is a piece of data which is difficult (costly, time-consuming) to produce but easy for others to verify and which satisfies certain requirements. Producing a proof of work can be a random process with low probability so that a lot of trial and error is required on average before a valid proof of work is generated. Bitcoin uses the Hash-cash proof of work system.
One application of this idea is using Hash-cash as a method to prevent email spam, requiring a proof of work on the email's contents (including the to address), on every email. Legitimate emails will be able to do the work to generate the proof easily (not much work is required for a single email), but mass spam emailers will have difficulty generating the required proofs (which would require huge computational resources).
Hash-cash proofs of work are used in Bitcoin for block generation. In order for a block to be accepted by network participants, miners must complete a proof of work which covers all of the data in the block. The difficulty of this work is adjusted so as to limit the rate at which new blocks can be generated by the network to one every 10 minutes. Due to the very low probability of successful generation, this makes it unpredictable which worker computer in the network will be able to generate the next block.
For a block to be valid it must hash to a value less than the current target; this means that each block indicates that work has been done generating it. Each block contains the hash of the preceding block, thus each block has a chain of blocks that together contain a large amount of work. Changing a block (which can only be done by making a new block containing the same predecessor) requires regenerating all successors and redoing the work they contain. This protects the block chain from tampering.
The most widely used proof-of-work scheme is based on SHA-256 and was introduced as a part of Bitcoin. Some other hashing algorithms that are used for proof-of-work include Scrypt, Blake-256, CryptoNight, HEFTY1, Quark, SHA-3, scrypt-jane.
Proof of Stake (POS) Proof-of-stake (POS) is a type of algorithm by which a cryptocurrency block-chain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. In POS-based cryptocurrencies the creator of the next block is chosen via various combinations of random selection and wealth or age (i.e. the stake).In general, a proof of stake algorithm looks as follows. The block-chain keeps track of a set of validators, and anyone who holds the block-chain's base cryptocurrency (in Ethereum's case, ether) can become a validator by sending a special type of transaction that locks up their ether into a deposit. The process of creating and agreeing to new blocks is then done through a consensus algorithm that all current validators can participate in.
There are many kinds of consensus algorithms, and many ways to assign rewards to validators who participate in the consensus algorithm, so there are many "flavors" of proof of stake. From an algorithmic perspective, there are two major types: chain-based proof of stake and BFT-style proof of stake.
In chain-based proof of stake, the algorithm pseudo-randomly selects a validator during each time slot (every period of 10 seconds might be a time slot), and assigns that validator the right to create a single block, and this block must point to some previous block (normally the block at the end of the previously longest chain), and so over time most blocks converge into a single constantly growing chain.
In BFT-style proof of stake, validators are randomly assigned the right to propose blocks, but agreeing on which block is canonical is done through a multi-round process where every validator sends a "vote" for some specific block during each round, and at the end of the process all (honest and online) validators permanently agree on whether or not any given block is part of the chain. Note that blocks may still be chained together; the key difference is that consensus on a block can come within one block, and does not depend on the length or size of the chain after it. This is what Ethereum is moving to later in 2018.
Advantages of POS over POW No need to consume large quantities of electricity in order to secure a block-chain ( it's estimated that both Bitcoin and Ethereum burn over $1 million worth of electricity and hardware costs per day as part of their consensus mechanism). Because of the lack of high electricity consumption, there is not as much need to issue as many new coins in order to motivate participants to keep participating in the network. It may theoretically even be possible to have negative net issuance, where a portion of transaction fees are "burned" and so the supply goes down over time. Proof of stake opens the door to a wider array of techniques that use game-theoretic mechanism design in order to better discourage centralized cartels from forming and, if they do form, from acting in ways that are harmful to the network. Reduced centralization risks, as economies of scale are much less of an issue. $10 million of coins will get you exactly 10 times higher returns than $1 million of coins, without any additional disproportionate gains because at the higher level you can afford better mass-production equipment. Ability to use economic penalties to make various forms of 51% attacks vastly more expensive to carry out than proof of work.
Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) Delegated Proof-of-Stake, on the other hand, works slightly differently. It is a more efficient PoS algorithm altogether, and seemingly provides more decentralization when it comes to issuing stake rewards to more people. Moreover, DPOS provides reliably confirmed transactions on the networks that implement this technology. If it were to be added to bitcoin at some point, it could potentially speed up transaction times, even though it would add inflation to the ecosystem as well.
Under the hood, DPOS uses a reputation system and real-time voting to achieve consensus. To be more specific, a panel of trusted parties has to be established, with all of its members eligible to create blocks and prevent non-trusted parties from participating. Delegates, the parties responsible for creating blocks, are unable to change transaction details. However, they can prevent specific transactions from being included in the next network block. This seemingly requires a fair bit of trust, which makes the concept look far less appealing.
However, there is a caveat. Any transaction not included in the next block, or a block failing to create, will mean the next network block is twice the size. In a way, this prevents malicious intent to block certain transactions or blocks being created in the allotted time period. All it does is perhaps slightly delay said transaction or block, but it is seemingly impossible to prevent inclusion and creation in the long run.
Moreover, anyone who behaves in a nefarious way will have their behavior exposed to the public. Community members of the DPOS-capable currencies can vote to have said person removed as a delegate altogether. It appears as if cheating under DPOS rules is not only impossible, but it is not in anybody’s best interest to do so either. It is equally possible to have more or fewer delegates as part of the network, although that may not necessarily be beneficial either. It is always possible to change the number of delegates, though, which is an important factor to keep in mind.
It is also worth mentioning delegates in a DPOS ecosystem are paid for the creation of blocks and inclusion of transactions. However, the delegates can use these funds to pay for marketing or lobbying efforts, which benefit the exposure of the cryptocurrency network as a whole. Network stakeholders determine how much delegates are paid for their efforts.
Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (dBFT) The dBFT (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance) algorithm
Consensus is about trying to maintain one version of truth. Over time we have transactions that we want to record in this ledger (book of truth). Because block-chains run decentralized around the world, and they receive different transactions at different times, they can often disagree about what is truth.
The key is to get consensus one way or another, otherwise all sorts of bad things can happen (double spending).
dBFT Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance is a fancy and cool name for a solution to getting eventual consensus under certain conditions.
The condition is really simple: as long as less than 1/3 of bookkeeper nodes are BAD actors, you can get eventual consensus and everyone is happy.
That's the main thing to remember, and I'll explain why 1/3 and not 1/4 or any other fraction.
An Analogy - Painting the walls A King has decided to paint the walls of his castle. He's decided it is either going to be Green (G) or Black (B). He doesn't mind which of the two but he wants consistency throughout the kingdom. And he wants all of his sons and daughters to agree on the color.
So he calls his four painters to come over and sends a signed message to his sons and daughters: I am getting my painters to redecorate my walls. I am torn between Green and Black. To resolve this, I want you, my beloved sons and daughters, to agree on the color and tell my painters and they will paint my walls. As soon as a painter hears from you and you can prove that 2/3 of my family agree on a color, she will start painting that color. Good luck.
The painters are all contactable by any of the sons and daughters. However, due to fighting between the family, the sons and daughters don't all talk to each other directly. Instead they pass messages between them. They all connected, just not directly.
Some of the family is evil and they want to get at least one of the painters to paint the wrong color. The family discuss and decide on the following protocol: 1. The oldest member of the family is elected speaker. He or she will communicate the chosen color with their signature.
Everyone will communicate that color to everyone else (until everyone is informed.) along with their signatures. If you hear from 2/3 of people the same color, then you can call any or all of the painters and tell them. If not, wait for some time and then elect the next oldest member as the speaker and repeat.
These signatures are magic and cannot be forged, and also are without a doubt proof that the person did sign it. Proving consensus protection.
With this setup, we can now prove that as long as less than a 1/3 of the family are evil, it is impossible for any of the painters to get a different message to the others and thereby paint the walls inconsistently.
The proof goes like this. Imagine that the evil members of the family belong to a secret clan F and have managed to insert themselves in between the other family members such that the rest of the family is split into two groups, R1 and R2. R1 members can talk to each other and to F but they can't talk directly to R2. And the same for R2. So F is in control here as they can control what information flows from R1 to R2 and vice versa.
In order for them to exact chaos, they need to get 2/3 of the signatures (including theirs) to be Green and Black. Remember, they can sign Green and pass that message to one person and also sign Black and pass that message to another person.
The next bit is really easy. In order to get 2/3 of the signatures, we need the size of F and R1 (the number of people in those two groups) to be >= 2/3 of the total. We also need that to be true for F and R2. That way R1 members think that it's green (for example) and the other group think it's black and they tell the painters and it all goes wrong.
However, because F is less than a 1/3 (remember, 2/3 people are honest), then it's impossible for BOTH F+R1 and F+R2 to be >= 2/3 x N. By using the fact that F+R1+R2 = N (the total number in the family) and a bit of algebraic rearrangement, you can prove that to get two separate consensus you requires F >= 1/3. Ta da - that's impossible as F < 1/3.
dBFT doesn't guarantee consensus in the sense that it's possible the messaging network is broken and people just can't talk to each other. But it gives protection guarantees that if you do reach consensus you can't then reach some other different consensus later. As long as the bad actors are less than a 1/3 of the bookkeepers (the Family), then everything is all good. This is the important part of ensuring the integrity of the system going forward.
Now that we have stated that You will need to read about the following.
Consensus Nodes (Bookkeeper Nodes) *See dBFT section
Master Nodes *See Full Node, but used in a POS block-chain. These also pay out fees to you for running a Master Node.
Full Nodes These are usually POW block-chains
Full nodes download every block and transaction and check them against Bitcoin's core consensus rules. Here are examples of consensus rules, though there are many more:
· Blocks may only create a certain number of bitcoins. (Currently 12.5 BTC per block.)
· Transactions must have correct signatures for the bitcoins being spent.
· Transactions/blocks must be in the correct data format.
· Within a single block-chain, a transaction output cannot be double-spent.
If a transaction or block violates the consensus rules, then it is absolutely rejected, even if every other node on the network thinks that it is valid. This is one of the most important characteristics of full nodes: they do what's right no matter what. For full nodes, miners actually have fairly limited power: they can only reorder or remove transactions, and only by expending a lot of computing power. A powerful miner is able to execute some serious attacks, but because full nodes rely on miners only for a few things, miners could not completely change or destroy Bitcoin.
Nodes that have different consensus rules are actually using two different networks/currencies. Changing any of the consensus rules requires a hard fork, which can be thought of as creating a new currency and having everyone move to it. Consensus rules are different from policy rules, which specify how a node or miner prioritizes or discourages certain things. Policy rules can be changed freely, and different nodes can have different policy rules. Because all full nodes must use exactly the same consensus rules in order to remain compatible with each other, even duplicating bugs and oddities in the original consensus rules, creating a full node from scratch is extremely difficult and dangerous. It is therefore recommended that everyone who wishes to run a full node use software based on the reference client, which is the only client guaranteed to behave correctly.
At minimum, a full node must download every transaction that has ever taken place, all new transactions, and all block headers. Additionally, full nodes must store information about every unspent transaction output until it is spent. By default full nodes are inefficient in that they download each new transaction at least twice, and they store the entire block chain (>60 GB) forever, even though only the unspent transaction outputs (<2 GB) are required.
Again to give you a slightly different over-simplified answer Bitcoin’s value is derived from the energy it cost to run the block-chain whether its coal-powered, hydro-powered, natural gas powered, or nuclear reactor-powered electricity.
Will Bitcoin be replaced by another block-chain as the reserve standard? Well it’s a possibility, but not likely any time soon. Most new Alt-coins are here to Compliment Bitcoin. Why do I say this? Well the goal is a Decentralized Smart Economy with the least amount of Centralized control possible. The Lightning Network integrates Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Vertcoin.
Bitcoin has 21,000,000 coins when they are finally fully released. This requires ASIC Miners a rather expensive, and specialized Computer. The block times are ten minutes. These for the older versions will still run about $20,000. It may have changed a little since I last looked, but the cutting edge ones will be much more.
Litecoin has 84,000,000 coins when they are finally fully released. This requires ASIC Miners a rather expensive, and specialized Computer. The block times are 2.5 minutes. It’s an improved clone of Bitcoin.
Vertcoin has 84,000,000 coins when they are finally fully released. The average Joe can mine this with a good graphics card. The block times are 2.5 minutes. It’s an modified clone of Litecoin.
Ethereum Is a Smart contract platform. It has many uses cases. Too many to list. This will be moved to a POS block-chain.
NEO Is a Smart contract platform. It has many uses cases. Too many to list. This has a lot of things in common with Ethereum, but at the same time it doesn’t. This uses the dBFT system, and has more common programming languages for Smart Contracts.
ARK this is a Smart Bridge ecosystem. It’s aim is to build bridges to other block-chains. Its aim is to be the hub of this new block-chain economy. Ark has bridged to Bitcoin, and also to Ethereum. They have plans for NEO, and Monero as well in the future. ARK has many other use cases I haven’t discussed, and don’t have time to right now.
These very originally made to compete with each other, but have found ways to coexist, but are also still be competitive with each other at the same time. I have kept this section short. I could spend many more pages writing about these Cryptocurrencies, and many more. These are the building blocks for the Smart Economy.
This is what Bitcoin, and all of the Alt-coins were brought about to fix.
· People used to pay each other in gold and silver. Difficult to transport. Difficult to divide.
· Paper money was invented. A claim to gold in a bank vault. Easier to transport and divide.
· Banks gave out more paper money than they had gold in the vault. They ran “fractional reserves”. A real money maker. But every now and then, banks collapsed because of runs on the bank.
· Central banking was invented. Central banks would be lenders of last resort. Runs on the bank were thus mitigated by banks guaranteeing each other’s deposits through a central bank. The risk of a bank run was not lowered. Its frequency was diminished and its impact was increased. After all, banks remained basically insolvent in this fractional reserve scheme.
· Banks would still get in trouble. But now, if one bank got in sufficient trouble, they would all be in trouble at the same time. Governments would have to step in to save them.
· All ties between the financial system and gold were severed in 1971 when Nixon decided that the USD would no longer be exchangeable for a fixed amount of gold. This exacerbated the problem, because there was now effectively no limit anymore on the amount of paper money that banks could create.
· From this moment on, all money was created as credit. Money ceased to be supported by an asset. When you take out a loan, money is created and lent to you. Banks expect this freshly minted money to be returned to them with interest. Sure, banks need to keep adequate reserves. But these reserves basically consist of the same credit-based money. And reserves are much lower than the loans they make.
· This led to an explosion in the money supply. The Federal Reserve stopped reporting M3 in 2006. But the ECB currently reports a yearly increase in the supply of the euro of about 5%.
· This leads to a yearly increase in prices. The price increase is somewhat lower than the increase in the money supply. This is because of increased productivity. Society gets better at producing stuff cheaper all the time. So, in absence of money creation you would expect prices to drop every year. That they don’t is the effect of money creation.
· What remains is an inflation rate in the 2% range.
· Banks have discovered that they can siphon off all the productivity increase + 2% every year, without people complaining too much. They accomplish this currently by increasing the money supply by 5% per year, getting this money returned to them at an interest.
· Apart from this insidious tax on society, banks take society hostage every couple of years. In case of a financial crisis, banks need bailouts or the system will collapse.
· Apart from these problems, banks and governments are now striving to do away with cash. This would mean that no two free men would be able to exchange money without intermediation by a bank. If you believe that to transact with others is a fundamental right, this should scare you.
· The absence of sound money was at the root of the problem. We were force-fed paper money because there were no good alternatives. Gold and silver remain difficult to use.
· When it was tried to launch a private currency backed by precious metals (Liberty dollar), this initiative was shut down because it undermined the U.S. currency system. Apparently, a currency alternative could only thrive if “nobody” launched it and if they was no central point of failure.
· What was needed was a peer-to-peer electronic cash system. This was what Satoshi Nakamoto described in 2008. It was a response to all the problems described above. That is why he labeled the genesis block with the text: “03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks.”. Bitcoin was meant to be an alternative to our current financial system.
To answer you on if this is a bubble. I personally do not see it that way at the moment. There will always be corrections in Crypto, or any field of Investing. Yes we have seen an unprecedented meteoric rise in cryptocurrencies there will be severe corrections in the future, but there will not be a ninety-nine percent crash like you are stating unless there is another Great Depression, or severe economic collapse. Cryptocurrencies are currently the greatest potential wealth equalizer around the world.
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